In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Fenugreek Seeds’ Phytoconstituents From Taghit Region (Southwest of Algeria) Against the Bacterial Strains Responsible for UTI

Author(s): Elhassan Benyagoub*, Nouria Nabbou, Abdallah Aguid, Miaad K. Alkhudhairy, Farah Bendada

Journal Name: Current Bioactive Compounds

Volume 17 , Issue 4 , 2021

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: In recent years, multidrug resistance to antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics, has constantly been evolving, despite the diversity of these agents. However, such factors as the undesirable side-effects they cause, and sometimes the relatively expensive treatment costs, adaptation and new resistance mechanisms of microorganisms that emerged and spread globally, led many people to use bioactive compounds for treatment in the form of plant extracts known for their antimicrobial properties. The world health organization statistics estimate that medicinal plants, as basic drugs, are used by two-thirds of the world's population. Recent studies have focused on finding plants around the world with the appropriate and effective extract to be used as antimicrobial drugs. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an annual herb that is widely consumed globally as food, feed additive, and in herbal medicines as traditional remedies. Taking this into account, the present work aimed to study the phytoconstituents and in vitro antimicrobial activity of fenugreek seeds cultivated in Taghit region (Southwest of Algeria) against some uropathogenic bacterial strains.

Methods: Qualitative tri phytochemical screening was carried out according to a standard protocol, based on staining and/or precipitation reactions, while the antibacterial test of two aqueous extracts and flavonoid, as selective extracts (n-butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions), was carried out by agar well diffusion method against a selection of Gram-positive and Gram-negative uropathogenic bacteria.

Results: The obtained results showed a composition rich in phytoconstituents, especially in polyphenol, from where does probably comes the antibacterial effect that was ranging switched from low to strong effect on the majority of the tested strains with a stronger action attributed to flavonoid extracts compared to moderate effect of aqueous extracts. These results are linked not only to the extracts’ nature but also to the antibiotic resistance that was observed in the testing results for the isolated and reference bacterial strains where the isolated uropathogenic strains were multidrug- resistant against more than three classes of antibiotics, mainly: aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, 1st generation quinolones and also many others, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and P. aeruginosa species while most Staphylococcus sp strains were resistant to penicillin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole.

Conclusion: However, flavonoids showed a greater effect compared to the antimicrobial activity of gentamicin, where Gram-positive uropathogenic isolates were more susceptible, with an activity index (AI) of 1 to 2.5 for S. aureus strains at concentrations of 27 to 223mg/mL. However, Gramnegative reference bacterial strains showed an activity index of 1 to 1.21 for E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

Keywords: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds, extraction, phytoconstituents, antibacterial effect, uropathogenic strains, taghit (algeria).

Abalikumwe, F. Investigation sur les bactéries responsables des infections urinaires et leur diagnostic par l’étude comparative. Mémoire de Bachelor en sciences médicales, Kigali Health Institute; Kigali, Rwanda: KHI, 2004. Available at:
Flores Mireles, Al.; Walker, J.N.; Caparon, M. Hultgren, SJ. Urinary tract infections: Epidemiology, mechanisms of infections and treatment options. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 2015, 13(5), 269-284.
Decoussera, J.W.; Lamy, B.; Pina, P.; Allouchd, P.Y. Trends in antibiotic susceptibility of bloodstream pathogens in hospitalized patients in France, 1996 to 2007. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2010, 66(3), 292-300.
Kempf, M.; Eveillard, M.; Kowalczyk, F.; Rossines, E.; Panhelleux, G.; Joly-Guillou, M.L. Antibacterial activity against 224 clinical bacterial strains of JCA 250 and JCA 251 compounds containing essential oils provided from Aroma Technologies research. Pathol. Biol. (Paris), 2011, 59(1), 39-43.
WHO. High levels of antibiotic resistance found worldwide, new data shows. News release. 2018. Available at: [Accessed on February 10, 2020].
Buronzo, A.M. Schnebelen. J-C. Grand guide des huiles essentielles : santé, beauté, bien- être, HACHETTE santé 2008, 256. Available at:
Sharma, P.; Shrivastava, D.K. In vitro efficacy of methanol and acetone extracts of Trigonella foenum (Fenugreek) and Trachyspermum ammi (Ajwain) against pathogenic bacteria. Int. J. Sci. Res. (Ahmedabad), 2017, 6(4), 817-819.,
Dathar, V.; Pavan, A.; Pindi, K. Antibacterial activity of Trigonella foenum graecum leaf extracts on clinical isolates. Int. J. Res. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 2017, 5(12), 948-955.
Bruneton, J. Plantes toxiques: Végétaux dangereux pour l’Homme et les animaux. 3ème édition; Lavoisier: Paris, France, 2005.
N’Guessan, K.; Kadja, B.; Zirihi, G.N.; Traoré, D.; Aké-Assi, L. Screening phytochimique de quelques plantes médicinales ivoiriennes utilisées en pays Krobou (Agboville, Côte-d’Ivoire). Sci. Nat., 2009, 6(1), 1-15.
Benyagoub, E.; Nabbou, N.; Boukhalkhel, S.; Dehini, I. The In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Quercus robur L methanolic and aqueous leaves’ extracts, from the Algerian high plateaus against some uro-pathogenic microbial strains. Phytother, 2019. [Article, in press].
Jagessar, R.C.; Allen, R. Phytochemical screening and atomic absorption spectroscopic studies of solvent type extract from leaves of Terminalia catappa, (Al-mond). Nat. Appl. Sci., Part-I., 2012, 3(3), 17-26.
Benyagoub, E.; Razni, D.; Moghtet, S. Phytochemical composition of Anastatica hierochuntica L., can it fight the toxigenic bacterial agents responsible for food poisoning? Microbes Health, 2017, 6(1), 5-8.
Upson, T.M.; Grayer, R.J.; Greenham, J.R.; Williams, C.A.; Al-Ghamdi, F.; Chen, F. Leaf flavonoids as systematic characters in the genera Lavandula and Sabaudia. J. Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 2000, 28(10), 991-1007.
Benyagoub, E. Nabbou, N.; Dine, A. Antimicrobial effect of Quercus robur L leaves selective extracts from Mezi mountain of Djeniene Bourezg (West of Algeria). Curr. Bioact. Compd., 2020.
Alaoui Boukhris, M. Activités larvicides des extraits de plantes sur les larves de moustiques vecteurs de maladies parasitaires. Mémoire de Master, Faculté des sciences et techniques, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah de Fès (Maroc) 2009. Available from:
Walli, R.R.; Al-Musrati, R.A.; Eshtewi, H.M.; Sherif, F.M. Secreening of antimicrobial activity of fenugreek seeds. Pharm. Pharmacol. Int. J., 2015, 2(4), 28-31.
Akrout, A.; Chemli, R.; Cherıf, I.; Hammami, M. Analysis of the essential oil of Artemisia campestris. Flavour Frag. J., 2001, 16, 337-339.
Simplice, D.K.; Denise, P.I.; Wendyame, M.C.N.; Ameyapoh, Y.; Ouermi, D.; Pignatelli, S.; Pietra, V.; Traore, A.S.; De Souza, C.; Simpore, J. Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract bacteria in Ouagadougou. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2009, 12(9), 712-716.
Tille, M.P. Bailey & Scott’s diagnostic microbiology, 14th ed; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 2018.
CLSI. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing M100; 28th Edition, Wayne Pennsylvania 19087-USA, 2018.
Drieux, L.; Brossier, F.; Sougakoff, W.; Jarlier, V. Phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae: Review and bench guide. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2008, 14(1), 90-103.
Glasset, B.; Herbin, S.; Granier, S.A.; Cavalié, L.; Lafeuille, E.; Guérin, C. Bacillus cereus, a serious cause of nosocomial infection: Epidemiologic and genetic survey. PLoS One, 2018, 13(5), e0194346.
Singariya, P.; Kumar, P.; Mourya, K.K. In-vitro bio-efficacy of stem extracts of Ashwagandha against some pathogens. J. Curr. Pharm. Res., 2011, 8(1), 25-30.
Benyagoub, E. Benchaib, S.M.; Zaalan, A.; Bendada, F. Prevalence and isolation frequency of pathogenic strains responsible for some infections in Bechar’s community (Southwest of Algeria): About 1458 cases. Bangladesh J. Med. Sci, 2020, 19(3), 404-413.
Sulieman, A.E.; Ahmed, H.E.; Abdel Rahim, A.M. The chemical composition of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L) and the antimicrobial properties of its seed oil. M.Sc; University of Gezira, 2008.
Achary, S.N.; Thomas, J.E.; Basu, S.K. Fenugreek: An ‘old world’ crop for the ‘new world’. Biodivers. Biodiversity (Nepean), 2006, 7(3-4), 27-30.
Basch, E.; Ulbricht, C.; Kuo, G.; Szapary, P.; Smith, M. Therapeutic applications of fenugreek. Altern. Med. Rev., 2003, 8(1), 20-27.
Bhatian, K.; Kaur, M.; Atif, F.; Ali, M.; Rehman, H.; Raisuddin, S. Aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. ameliorates additive urotoxicity of buthionine sulfoximine and cyclophosphamide in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol., 2006, 44(10), 1744-1750.
Pande, K.K.; Pande, L.; Pande, B.; Pujari, A.; Sah, P.; Sah, S. Limonene dominates the Photochemistry of Trigonella foenum-graceum in Nature. Nat. Sci., 2011, 9(5), 17-20.
Singh, V.; Garg, A.N. Availability of essential trace elements in Indian cereals, vegetables and spices using INAA and the contribution of spices to daily dietary intake. Food Chem., 2006, 94(1), 81-89.
Al-Habori, M.; Raman, A. Pharmacological properties. In: Ed. Petropoulos GA, Fenugreek; the genus Trigonella, Taylor & Francis Group; 1st Ed, London-UK, 2002; pp. 161-182.
Kowmudi, G.; Nagappan, K.; Anoop, K.; Sailaja, M.; Narenderan, S.T. A validated LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of Trigonelline in marked dietary supplements. Curr. Bioact. Compd., 2020. [Article, in press].
Zhou, J.; Chan, L.; Zhou, S. Trigonelline: A plant alkaloid with therapeutic potential for diabetes and central nervous system disease. Curr. Med. Chem., 2012, 19(21), 3523-3531.
Chaurasia, K.; Singh, P. Evaluation of active compounds of fenugreek seeds of water extract using HPLC methodology Indo Am. J. Pharm. Res., 2017, 7(7), 231-234. Available from:
Do, Q.D.; Angkawijaya, A.E.; Tran-Nguyen, P.L.; Huynh, L.H.; Soetaredjo, F.E.; Ismadji, S.; Ju, Y.H. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatic. Yao Wu Shi Pin Fen Xi, 2014, 22(3), 296-302.
Boudemagh, A. Isolement, à partir des sols Sahariens, de bactéries actinomycétales productrices de molécules antifongiques, identification moléculaire de souches actives. Thèse de Doctorat en microbiologie appliquée, Faculté des Sciences, Département des sciences de la nature et de la vie; Université Mentouri Constantine: Algérie, 2007. Available at:
Yadav, R.; Kaushik, R.; Gupta, D. The health benefits of Trigonella foenum-graecum: A Review. Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl., 2011, 1(1), 32-35.
Mishra, R.; Mandloi, S.; Yadav, N.; Choithani, J. Phytochemical analysis of Trigonella foenum graecum and its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2016, 5(6), 1408-1423.
Kaveri, C.M.; Sincy, J. Comparative analysis of phytochemical and antibacterial activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, L.). Int. J. Bot. Stud., 2019, 4(2), 100-103.
Ali, A.M.A.; ElNour, M.E.M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of callus and seeds extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Int. J. Sci. Res. (Ahmedabad), 2014, 3(10), 1268-1272.
Alwahibi, M.; Soliman, D.A. Evaluating the antibacterial activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed extract against a selection of different pathogenic bacteria. J. Pure Appl. Microbiol., 2014, 8(S2), 817-821.
Khursheed, R.; Naz, A.; Naz, E.; Sharif, H.; Rizwani, G.H. Antibacterial, antimycelial and phytochemical analysis of Ricinus communis Linn, Trigonella foenum grecum Linn and Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf of Pakistan. Rom. Biotechnol. Lett., 2012, 17(3), 7237-7244.,
Benyagoub, E.; Boulanouar, A.; Souid Ahmed, M.; Nabbou, N.; Belloufa, A. Essai d’évaluation de l’activité antibactérienne de la gomme arabique d’Acacia tortilis (Forssk) contre quelques souches bactériennes pathogènes. Bull. Soc. R. Sci. Liege, 2016, 85, 237-252.
Mathur, P.; Choudhry, M. Consumption pattern of fenugreek seeds in Rajasthani families. J. Hum. Ecol., 2009, 25(1), 9-12.
Rajan, T.; Dharman, M. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves extracts. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 2014, 26, 157-161.
Michael, D.; Kumawat, D. Legend and archeology of fenugreek, constitution and modern applications of fenugreek seeds; International Sympozium: USA, 2003, pp. 41-42.
Randhir, R.; Yuan-Tong, L.; Shetty, K. Phenolics, their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in dark germinated fenugreek sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 2004, 13(3), 295-307.
Sowmya, P.; Rajyalakshmi, P. Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 1999, 53(4), 359-365.
El bouamri, M.C.; Arsalane, L.; Kamouni, Y.; Yahyaoui, H.; Bennouar, N.; Berraha, M.; Zouhair, S. Profil actuel de résistance aux antibiotiques des souches d’Escherichia coli uropathogènes et conséquences thérapeutiques. Prog. Urol. Prog. Urol., 2014, 24(16), 1058-1062.
Sekhsokh, Y.; Chadli, M.; El Hamzaoui, S.A. Frequency and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria identified in urine. Med. Mal. Infect., 2008, 38(6), 324-327.
Benyagoub, E. Benyagoub, El-H.; Berbaoui, H.; Rahmani, C.; Benyoucef, L. Identification and study of the emergence of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms responsible for urinary tract infections in Bechar (Algeria). ScienceLib Editions Mersenne, 2013, 5, 1-13.
Benyagoub, E.; Benchaib, S.M.; Zaalan, A.; Bendada, F.; Benguerba, A. Etude phytochimique et de la phase butanolique de l’espèce Inula crithmoides L. Mémoire de Magister. Faculté des sciences exactes, Département de chimie, Université Mentouri de Constantine (Algérie), Available from:
Xiao, ZP.; Peng, ZY.; Peng, MJ.; Yan, WB.; Ouyang, YZ.; Zhu, HL. Flavonoids health benefits and their molecular mechanism. Mini Rev. Med. Chem., 2011, 11(2), 169-177.
Bellakhdar, J. Plantes médicinales au Maghreb et soins de base; Ed. Le Fennec: Casablanca, Maroc, 2006.
Kumari, OS.; Rao, NB.; Gajula, RG. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Trigonella foenum-gracum (Methi seeds). Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2016, 7(6), 83-86.
Hwa, CY.; Perveen, N.; Paliwal, N.; Khan, NH. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity determination of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. Pharm. Pharmacol. Int. J., 2019, 7(4), 175-186.
59] Sharma, V.; Singh, P.; Rani, A. Antimicrobial activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek). Eur. J. Exp. Biol., 2017, 7(1), 1-4.
ElNour, M.E.M.; Ali, A.M.A.; Saeed, B.E.A.E. Antimicrobial activities and phytochemical screening of callus and seeds extracts of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2015, 4(2), 147-157.
Akiyama, H., Fujii, K., Yamasaki, O., Oono, O., Iwatsuki K. Antibacterial action of several tannins against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 2001, 48(4), 487-491.
Funatogawa, K.; Hayshi, S.; Shimomura, H.; Yoshida, T.; Hatano, T.; Ito, H.; Hirai, Y. Antibacterial activity of hydrolysable tannins derived from medicinal plant against Helicobacter pylori. Microbiol. Immunol., 2004, 48(4), 251-261.
Scalbert, A. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry, 1991, 30(12), 3875-3883.
Hogan, D.; Kolter, R. Why are bacteria refractory to antimicrobials? Curr. Opin. Microbiol., 2002, 5(5), 472-277.
Razni, D.; Rouisset, L.; Benyagoub, E. Chemical indices and antibacterial properties of some essential oils of Apiaceae and Lauraceae spices in Southwest of Algeria. Asian J. Dairy Food Res., 2019, 38(2), 105-113.
Candan, F.; Unlu, M.; Tepe, B.; Daferera, D.; Polissiou, M.; Sökmen, A.; Akpulat, HA. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essen-tial oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae). J. Ethnopharmacol, 2003, 87(2-3), 215-220.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 03 July, 2020
Page: [339 - 355]
Pages: 17
DOI: 10.2174/1573407216999200703123154
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 39