Modulation of Vascular Function by Perivascular Adipose Tissue: Sex Differences

Author(s): Jamaira A. Victorio, Rafael M. da Costa, Rita C. Tostes, Ana P. Davel*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 30 , 2020


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Abstract:

In addition to the endothelium, the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been described to be involved in the local modulation of vascular function by synthetizing and releasing vasoactive factors. Under physiological conditions, PVAT has anticontractile and anti-inflammatory effects. However, in the context of hypertension, obesity and type 2 diabetes, the PVAT pattern of anticontractile adipokines is altered, favoring oxidative stress, inflammation and, consequently, vascular dysfunction. Therefore, dysfunctional PVAT has become a target for therapeutic intervention in cardiometabolic diseases. An increasing number of studies have revealed sex differences in PVAT morphology and in the modulatory effects of PVAT on endothelial function and vascular tone. Moreover, distinct mechanisms underlying PVAT dysfunction may account for vascular abnormalities in males and females. Therefore, targeting sex-specific mechanisms of PVAT dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases is an evolving strategy for cardiovascular protection.

Keywords: Perivascular adipose tissue, sex differences, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular.

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VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 30
Year: 2020
Published on: 03 September, 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200701211912
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