Exploring Phytotherapeutic Alternatives for Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Mervin Chávez-Castillo*, Victoria Nuñez, Milagros Rojas, Ángel Ortega, Pablo Durán, Daniela Pirela, María Marquina, Clímaco Cano, Maricarmen Chacín, Manuel Velasco, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero, Valmore Bermúdez

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 35 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


At present, the pathologic spectrum of obesity-insulin resistance (IR)-diabetes mellitus (DM) represents not only a pressing matter in public health but also a paramount object of study in biomedical research, as they constitute major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD). Phytotherapy, the use of medicinal herbs (MH) with treatment purposes, offers a wide array of opportunities for innovation in the management of these disorders; mainly as pharmacological research on small molecules accumulates. Several MH has displayed varied mechanisms of action relevant to the pathogenesis of obesity, IR and DM, including immunological and endocrine modulation, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), regulation of appetite, thermogenesis and energy homeostasis, sensitisation to insulin function and potentiation of insulin release, among many others. However, the clinical correlates of these molecular phenomena remain relatively uncertain, with only a handful of MH boasting convincing clinical evidence in this regard. This review comprises an exploration of currently available preclinical and clinical research on the role of MH in the management of obesity, IR, and DM.

Keywords: Phytotherapy, medicinal herbs, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease.

World Health Organization. Non-communicable diseases mortality and morbidity. Available from: https://www.who.int/gho/ncd/mor tality_morbidity/en/
World Health Organization. Cardiovascular diseases Newsroom fact sheet. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)
Al-Lawati JA. Diabetes Mellitus: A Local and Global Public Health Emergency! Oman Med J 2017; 32(3): 177-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2017.34] [PMID: 28584596]
World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Available from: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
Altaf QA, Barnett AH, Tahrani AA. Novel therapeutics for type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance. Diabetes Obes Metab 2015; 17(4): 319-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.12400] [PMID: 25308775]
Kemppainen LM, Kemppainen TT, Reippainen JA, Salmenniemi ST, Vuolanto PH. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Europe: Health-related and sociodemographic determinants. Scand J Public Health 2018; 46(4): 448-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494817733869] [PMID: 28975853]
Welz AN, Emberger-Klein A, Menrad K. Why people use herbal medicine: insights from a focus-group study in Germany. BMC Complement Altern Med 2018; 18(1): 92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2160-6] [PMID: 29544493]
Pan SY, Zhou SF, Gao SH, et al. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM’s Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.: 2013627375
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/627375] [PMID: 23634172]
Applequist WL, Brinckmann JA, Cunningham AB, et al. Scientists’ Warning on Climate Change and Medicinal Plants. Planta Med 2020; 86(1): 10-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1041-3406] [PMID: 31731314]
Wang P, Yu Z. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review. J Pharm Anal 2015; 5(5): 277-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2015.04.001] [PMID: 29403941]
Payab M, Hasani-Ranjbar S, Shahbal N, et al. Effect of the herbal medicines in obesity and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Phytother Res 2020; 34(3): 1-20.
[PMID: 31793087]
Lee YS, Cha BY, Yamaguchi K, et al. Effects of Korean white ginseng extracts on obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Cytotechnology 2010; 62(4): 367-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-010-9288-7] [PMID: 20862608]
Zhang L, Virgous C, Si H. Ginseng and obesity: observations and understanding in cultured cells, animals and humans. J Nutr Biochem 2017; 44: 1-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.11.010] [PMID: 27930947]
Wu Y, Yu Y, Szabo A, Han M, Huang XF. Central inflammation and leptin resistance are attenuated by ginsenoside Rb1 treatment in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. PLoS One 2014; 9(3): e92618
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092618] [PMID: 24675731]
Park HJ, Kim JH, Shim I. Anti-obesity Effects of Ginsenosides in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats. Chin J Integr Med 2019; 25(12): 895-901.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-019-3200-x] [PMID: 31144161]
Hussein GME, Matsuda H, Nakamura S, et al. Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) promotes satiety and body weight lowering in mice: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1. Biol Pharm Bull 2011; 34(12): 1849-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.34.1849] [PMID: 22130241]
Yimam M, Jiao P, Hong M, et al. A Botanical Composition from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis for Body Weight Management. J Med Food 2017; 20(11): 1100-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.0002] [PMID: 28708468]
Hamdaoui M, Snoussi C, Dhaouadi K, et al. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea. J Nutr Intermed Metab 2016; 6: 33-40.
Wu T, Xu J, Chen Y, Liu R, Zhang M. Oolong tea polysaccharide and polyphenols prevent obesity development in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Nutr Res 2018; 62(0)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v62.1599] [PMID: 30622452]
Carobbio S, Guénantin AC, Samuelson I, Bahri M, Vidal-Puig A. Brown and beige fat: From molecules to physiology and pathophysiology. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019; 1864(1): 37-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2018.05.013] [PMID: 29852279]
Lim S, Park J, Um JY. Ginsenoside Rb1 Induces Beta 3 Adrenergic Receptor-Dependent Lipolysis and Thermogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and db/db Mice. Front Pharmacol 2019; 10: 1154.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01154] [PMID: 31680950]
Liu H, Liu M, Jin Z, et al. Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and suppresses obesity in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice through the AMPK pathway. Food Funct 2019; 10(6): 3603-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C9FO00027E] [PMID: 31161181]
Xie J, Wang Y, Jiang WW, et al. Moringa oleifera Leaf Petroleum Ether Extract Inhibits Lipogenesis by Activating the AMPK Signaling Pathway. Front Pharmacol 2018; 9: 1447.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01447] [PMID: 30618744]
Dos Santos TW, Miranda J, Teixeira L, et al. Yerba Mate Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Thermogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Mol Nutr Food Res 2018; 62(15): e1800142
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201800142] [PMID: 29851217]
Choi MS, Park HJ, Kim SR, Kim DY, Jung UJ. Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Yerba Mate Ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice by Regulating Energy Expenditure and Lipid Metabolism. J Med Food 2017; 20(12): 1168-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.3995] [PMID: 28872427]
Cho D, Jeong HW, Kim JK, et al. Gallocatechin Gallate-Containing Fermented Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Obesity and Hypertriglyceridemia Through the Modulation of Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes and Myocytes. J Med Food 2019; 22(8): 779-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.4327] [PMID: 31210578]
Lee MS, Kim Y. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances uncoupling protein 2 gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2009; 73(2): 434-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1271/bbb.80563] [PMID: 19202275]
Park KS. Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pharm Biol 2015; 53(6): 870-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2014.946059] [PMID: 25429790]
Nonino C, Noronha N, Pinhel M, et al. Green tea supplementation improves oxidative stress biomarkers and modulates IL-6 circulating levels in obese women. Nutr Hosp 2019; 36(3): 583-8.
Suzuki T, Pervin M, Goto S, Isemura M, Nakamura Y. Beneficial effects of tea and the green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate on obesity. Molecules 2016; 21(10): 1305.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101305] [PMID: 27689985]
Balsan G, Pellanda LC, Sausen G, et al. Effect of yerba mate and green tea on paraoxonase and leptin levels in patients affected by overweight or obesity and dyslipidemia: a randomized clinical trial. Nutr J 2019; 18(1): 5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0426-y] [PMID: 30660196]
Bermúdez V, Salazar J, González R, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors associated with Impaired Fasting Glucose in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela. J Diabetes Metab 2016; 7(6): 2-8.
Rojas J, Bermúdez V, Leal E, et al. Insulinorresistencia e hiperinsulinemia como factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular. AVFT 2010; 27(1): 29-39.
Salazar J, Chávez-Castillo M, Rojas J, et al. Is “Leptin Resistance” Another Key Resistance To Manage In Type 2 Diabetes? Curr Diabetes Rev 2020; 16(7): 733-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399816666191230111838] [PMID: 31886750]
Gutiérrez-Rodelo C, Roura-Guiberna A, Olivares-Reyes JA. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance: An Update. Gac Med Mex 2017; 153(2): 214-28.
[PMID: 28474708]
Li J, Bai L, Wei F, et al. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Herbal Medicines Against Insulin Resistance: A Review. Front Pharmacol 2019; 10: 661.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00661] [PMID: 31258478]
Hu X, Wang M, Bei W, Han Z, Guo J. The Chinese herbal medicine FTZ attenuates insulin resistance via IRS1 and PI3K in vitro and in rats with metabolic syndrome. J Transl Med 2014; 12(1): 47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-12-47] [PMID: 24555840]
Han J, Yang N, Zhang F, et al. Rhizoma Anemarrhenae extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic rodents. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 172: 368-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.05.016] [PMID: 26162543]
Lin CL, Lin JK. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates high glucose-induced insulin signaling blockade in human hepG2 hepatoma cells. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52(8): 930-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700437] [PMID: 18496818]
Musi N, Fujii N, Hirshman MF, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes during exercise. Diabetes 2001; 50(5): 921-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.50.5.921] [PMID: 11334434]
Shih C-C, Shlau M-T, Lin C-H, Wu J-B. Momordica charantia ameliorates insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with altered hepatic glucose production and fatty acid synthesis and AMPK phosphorylation in high-fat-fed mice. Phytother Res 2014; 28(3): 363-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5003] [PMID: 23610006]
Nallamuthu I, Tamatam A, Khanum F. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Aegle marmelos fruit on radical scavenging activity and exercise-endurance capacity in mice. Pharm Biol 2014; 52(5): 551-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2013.850518] [PMID: 24707972]
Purintrapiban J, Suttajit M, Forsberg NE. Differential activation of glucose transport in cultured muscle cells by polyphenolic compounds from Canna indica L. Root. Biol Pharm Bull 2006; 29(10): 1995-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.1995] [PMID: 17015939]
Krisanapun C, Lee SH, Peungvicha P, Temsiririrkkul R, Baek SJ. Antidiabetic Activities of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet Are Mediated by Enhancement of Adipocyte Differentiation and Activation of the GLUT1 Promoter. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011. 2011167684
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neq004] [PMID: 21603234]
Mueckler M, Thorens B. The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med 2013; 34(2-3): 121-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001] [PMID: 23506862]
Ruan CT, Lam SH, Chi TC, Lee SS, Su MJ. Borapetoside C from Tinospora crispa improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Phytomedicine 2012; 19(8-9): 719-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2012.03.009] [PMID: 22579212]
Sole SS, Srinivasan BP. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets’ intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 2012; 32(8): 626-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2012.06.015] [PMID: 22935346]
Xian HM, Che H, Qin Y, et al. Coriolus versicolor aqueous extract ameliorates insulin resistance with PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways involved in diabetic skeletal muscle. Phytother Res 2018; 32(3): 551-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6007] [PMID: 29243310]
Ueda-Wakagi M, Nagayasu H, Yamashita Y, Ashida AH. Green Tea Ameliorates Hyperglycemia by Promoting the Translocation of Glucose Transporter 4 in the Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rodents. Int J Mol Sci 2019; 20(10): 2436.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102436] [PMID: 31100973]
Li JB, Zhang R, Han X, Piao CL. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits dietary-induced obesity and improves obesity-related glucose metabolic disorders. Braz J Med Biol Res 2018; 51(4): e7139
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-431x20177139] [PMID: 29513799]
Sangeetha MK, Priya CD, Vasanthi HR. Anti-diabetic property of Tinospora cordifolia and its active compound is mediated through the expression of Glut-4 in L6 myotubes. Phytomedicine 2013; 20(3-4): 246-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2012.11.006] [PMID: 23290487]
Agyemang K, Han L, Liu E, Zhang Y, Wang T, Gao X. Recent Advances in Astragalus membranaceus Anti-Diabetic Research: Pharmacological Effects of Its Phytochemical Constituents. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013: 654643
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/654643] [PMID: 24348714]
Belwal T, Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM, Habtemariam S. Dietary Anthocyanins and Insulin Resistance: When Food Becomes a Medicine. Nutrients 2017; 9(10): 1111.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9101111] [PMID: 29023424]
Pérez-Ramírez IF, Castaño-Tostado E, Ramírez-de León JA, Rocha-Guzmán NE, Reynoso-Camacho R. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage. Food Chem 2015; 172: 885-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.126] [PMID: 25442634]
Nowicka P, Wojdyło A, Samoticha J. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity, and antidiabetic activity of novel smoothies from selected Prunus fruits. J Funct Foods 2016; 25: 397-407.
Kobayashi Y, Suzuki M, Satsu H, et al. Green tea polyphenols inhibit the sodium-dependent glucose transporter of intestinal epithelial cells by a competitive mechanism. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48(11): 5618-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0006832] [PMID: 11087528]
Salehi B, Ata A, V Anil, Kumar N, et al. Atta-ur-Rahman. Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants and Their Active Components. Biomolecules 2019; 9(10): 551.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9100551] [PMID: 31575072]
Güvenalp Z, Özbek H, Dursunoğlu B, Yuca H, Gözcü S, Çil YM, et al. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the herbs of Artemisia dracunculus L. and its active constituents. Med Chem Res 2017; 26: 3209-15.
Shim YJ, Doo HK, Ahn SY, et al. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract from the gall of Rhus chinensis on alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial blood glucose. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 85(2-3): 283-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00370-7] [PMID: 12639753]
Japhet M, Mlungisi N, Exnevia G. Mechanisms of action of traditional herbal medicines used in the management of diabetes mellitus: a review of the literature. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2017; 14(5): 156-65.
Khan H, Amin S, Tewari D, Nabavi SM, Atanasov AG. Plant-derived Glycosides with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity: Current Standing and Future Prospects. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2019; 19(4): 391-401.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530319666181128104831] [PMID: 30484413]
Xiong R, Wang XL, Wu JM, et al. Polyphenols isolated from lychee seed inhibit Alzheimer’s disease-associated Tau through improving insulin resistance via the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. J Ethnopharmacol 2020.: 251112548
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112548] [PMID: 31917277]
Yan J, Zhao Y, Suo S, Liu Y, Zhao B. Green tea catechins ameliorate adipose insulin resistance by improving oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2012; 52(9): 1648-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.01.033] [PMID: 22330066]
Khan S, Kamal MA. Wogonin Alleviates Hyperglycemia Through Increased Glucose Entry into Cells Via AKT/GLUT4 Pathway. Curr Pharm Des 2019; 25(23): 2602-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190722115410] [PMID: 31333118]
Park JE, Park JY, Seo Y, Han JS. A new chromanone isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. increases glucose uptake by stimulating GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Int J Biol Macromol 2019; 123: 26-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.206] [PMID: 30389528]
Öztürk E, Arslan AKK, Yerer MB, Bishayee A. Resveratrol and diabetes: A critical review of clinical studies. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 95: 230-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.08.070] [PMID: 28843911]
Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Yoshikawa M. Search for new type of PPARγ agonist-like anti-diabetic compounds from medicinal plants. Biol Pharm Bull 2014; 37(6): 884-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b14-00037] [PMID: 24882400]
Eddouks M, Bidi A, El Bouhali B, Hajji L, Zeggwagh NA. Antidiabetic plants improving insulin sensitivity. J Pharm Pharmacol 2014; 66(9): 1197-214.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12243] [PMID: 24730446]
Chandru S, Vishwanath P, Devegowda D, Ramasamudra SN, Prashant A, Hathur B. Evaluation of Protein Kinase Cβ and PPARγ Activity in Diabetic Rats Supplemented with Momordica charantia. J Clin Diagn Res 2016; 10(4): BF01-4.
[PMID: 27190792]
Gao D, Li Q, Gao Z, Wang L. Antidiabetic effects of Corni Fructus extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Yonsei Med J 2012; 53(4): 691-700.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2012.53.4.691] [PMID: 22665333]
Mohd-Radzman NH, Ismail WI, Adam Z, Jaapar SS, Adam A. Potential Roles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Abrogating Insulin Resistance and Diabetes: A Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.: 2013718049
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/718049] [PMID: 24324517]
Gomaa AA, Makboul RM, Al-Mokhtar MA, Nicola MA. Polyphenol-rich Boswellia serrata gum prevents cognitive impairment and insulin resistance of diabetic rats through inhibition of GSK3β activity, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Biomed Pharmacother 2019; 109: 281-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.056] [PMID: 30396086]
Wang H, Mu W, Shang H, Lin J, Lei X. The antihyperglycemic effects of Rhizoma Coptidis and mechanism of actions: a review of systematic reviews and pharmacological research. BioMed Res Int 2014. 2014798093
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/798093] [PMID: 24818152]
Cao Y, Bao S, Yang W, et al. Epigallocatechin gallate prevents inflammation by reducing macrophage infiltration and inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α signaling in the pancreas of rats on a high fat diet. Nutr Res 2014; 34(12): 1066-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2014.10.004] [PMID: 25453543]
Akash MSH, Rehman K, Liaqat A. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha: Role in Development of Insulin Resistance and Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Cell Biochem 2018; 119(1): 105-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.26174] [PMID: 28569437]
Governa P, Baini G, Borgonetti V, et al. Phytotherapy in the Management of Diabetes: A Review. Molecules 2018; 23(1): 105.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010105] [PMID: 29300317]
Farzaei F, Morovati MR, Farjadmand F, Farzaei MH. A Mechanistic Review on Medicinal Plants Used for Diabetes Mellitus in Traditional Persian Medicine. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017; 22(4): 944-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2156587216686461] [PMID: 29228789]
Xie LW, Atanasov AG, Guo DA, et al. Activity-guided isolation of NF-κB inhibitors and PPARγ agonists from the root bark of Lycium chinense Miller. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 152(3): 470-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.029] [PMID: 24512737]
Jin T, Song Z, Weng J, Fantus IG. Curcumin and other dietary polyphenols: potential mechanisms of metabolic actions and therapy for diabetes and obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2018; 314(3): E201-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00285.2017] [PMID: 29089337]
Choudhury H, Pandey M, Hua CK, et al. An update on natural compounds in the remedy of diabetes mellitus: A systematic review. J Tradit Complement Med 2017; 8(3): 361-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.08.012] [PMID: 29992107]
Wang J, Wang L, Lou GH, et al. Coptidis Rhizoma: a comprehensive review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Pharm Biol 2019; 57(1): 193-225.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2019.1577466] [PMID: 30963783]
Bulboaca AE, Boarescu PM, Porfire AS, et al. The Effect of Nano-Epigallocatechin-Gallate on Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinases in Experimental Diabetes Mellitus. Antioxidants 2020; 9(2): 172.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020172] [PMID: 32093214]
Lin C-C, Wu S-J, Chang C-H, Ng L-T. Antioxidant activity of Cinnamomum cassia. Phytother Res 2003; 17(7): 726-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1190] [PMID: 12916067]
Sivakumar V, Rajan MSD. Antioxidant Effect of Tinospora cordifolia Extract in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010; 72(6): 795-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.84600] [PMID: 21969757]
Shakib Z, Shahraki N, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Aloe vera as an herbal medicine in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: A review. Phytother Res 2019; 33(10): 2649-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6465] [PMID: 31456283]
Roghani M, Baluchnejadmojarad T. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect and antioxidant activity of chronic epigallocatechin-gallate in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Pathophysiology 2010; 17(1): 55-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.07.004] [PMID: 19682872]
Yang Y, Li W, Li Y, Wang Q, Gao L, Zhao J. Dietary Lycium barbarum polysaccharide induces Nrf2/ARE pathway and ameliorates insulin resistance induced by high-fat via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014. 2014145641
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/145641] [PMID: 25045414]
Colagiuri S, Matthews D, Leiter LA, Chan SP, Sesti G, Marre M. The place of gliclazide MR in the evolving type 2 diabetes landscape: A comparison with other sulfonylureas and newer oral antihyperglycemic agents. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018; 143: 1-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.05.028] [PMID: 29802958]
Prabhakar PK, Doble M. A target based therapeutic approach towards diabetes mellitus using medicinal plants. Curr Diabetes Rev 2008; 4(4): 291-308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157339908786241124] [PMID: 18991598]
Patil SB, Takalikar SS, Joglekar MM, Haldavnekar VS, Arvindekar AU. Insulinotropic and β-cell protective action of cuminaldehyde, cuminol and an inhibitor isolated from Cuminum cyminum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Nutr 2013; 110(8): 1434-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513000627] [PMID: 23507295]
Zuñiga LY, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E. Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Administration on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion. J Med Food 2017; 20(8): 750-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.0001] [PMID: 28459647]
Xiao HT, Wen B, Ning ZW, et al. Cyclocarya paliurus tea leaves enhances pancreatic β cell preservation through inhibition of apoptosis. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 9155.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09641-z] [PMID: 28831132]
Chang CL, Lin Y, Bartolome AP, Chen YC, Chiu SC, Yang WC. Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: chemistry, biology, and potential application of selected plants and compounds. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.: 2013378657
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/378657] [PMID: 23662132]
Jacob Bindu. Role of medicinal plants in the management of diabetes mellitus: a review.Biotech 2018; 9(1)
Feng Z, Hou X, Zhu C, Zhu J, Jiang C. Epigallocatechin gallate ameliorates morphological changes of pancreatic islets in diabetic mice and downregulates blood sugar level by inhibiting the accumulation of AGE-RAGE. J Cell Biochem 2018; 120(5): 8510-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28139] [PMID: 30582209]
Ríos JL, Francini F, Schinella GR. Natural products for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Planta Med 2015; 81(12-13): 975-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1546131] [PMID: 26132858]
Elekofehinti OO, Ariyo EO, Akinjiyan MO, et al. Potential use of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) derived compounds as antidiabetics: In silico and in vivo studies. Pathophysiology 2018; 25(4): 327-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2018.05.003] [PMID: 29764719]
Suh H-W, Lee K-B, Kim K-S, et al. A bitter herbal medicine Gentiana scabra root extract stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and regulates blood glucose in db/db mouse. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 172: 219-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.042] [PMID: 26129938]
Kosaraju J, Dubala A, Chinni S, Khatwal RB, Satish Kumar MN, Basavan D. A molecular connection of Pterocarpus marsupium, Eugenia jambolana and Gymnema sylvestre with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in the treatment of diabetes. Pharm Biol 2014; 52(2): 268-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2013.823550] [PMID: 24074231]
Onakpoya I, Hung SK, Perry R, Wider B, Ernst E. The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials. J Obes 2011.: 2011509038
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/509038] [PMID: 21197150]
Yang TY, Chou JI, Ueng KC, et al. Weight reduction effect of Puerh tea in male patients with metabolic syndrome. Phytother Res 2014; 28(7): 1096-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5111] [PMID: 24399768]
Jensen GS, Beaman JL, He Y, Guo Z, Sun H. Reduction of body fat and improved lipid profile associated with daily consumption of a Puer tea extract in a hyperlipidemic population: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging 2016; 11(11): 367-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S94881] [PMID: 27069360]
Lee J, Chung M, Fu Z, Choi J, Lee HJ. The Effects of Irvingia gabonensis Seed Extract Supplementation on Anthropometric and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Coll Nutr 2019; 19: 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2019.1691956] [PMID: 31855111]
Ross SM. African mango (IGOB131): a proprietary seed extract of Irvingia gabonensis is found to be effective in reducing body weight and improving metabolic parameters in overweight humans. Holist Nurs Pract 2011; 25(4): 215-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HNP.0b013e318222735a] [PMID: 21697664]
Arora E, Khajuria V, Tandon VR, et al. To evaluate efficacy and safety of Caralluma fimbriata in overweight and obese patients: A randomized, single blinded, placebo control trial. Perspect Clin Res 2015; 6(1): 39-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.148812] [PMID: 25657901]
Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Asemi Z, Esmaillzadeh A. Effect of the cumin cyminum L. Intake on Weight Loss, Metabolic Profiles and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Ann Nutr Metab 2015; 66(2-3): 117-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000373896] [PMID: 25766448]
Cassani RS, Fassini PG, Silvah JH, Lima CM, Marchini JS. Impact of weight loss diet associated with flaxseed on inflammatory markers in men with cardiovascular risk factors: a clinical study. Nutr J 2015; 14: 5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-14-5] [PMID: 25577201]
Chang HC, Peng CH, Yeh DM, Kao ES, Wang CJ. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans. Food Funct 2014; 5(4): 734-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3fo60495k] [PMID: 24549255]
Kuriyan R, Kumar DR. R R, Kurpad AV. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010; 10: 27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-10-27] [PMID: 20553629]
Prieto D, Añez R, Rojas J, Bermúdez V. Efecto de la administración de una infusión acuosa de Hibiscus Sabdariffa L sobre el índice de masa corporal, apetito y saciedad en individuos con obesidad grado I AVFT 2013; 32(4): 34-40.
Nagatomo A, Nishida N, Fukuhara I, et al. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2015; 8: 147-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S78623] [PMID: 25834460]
Amagase H, Nance DM. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study of the general effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum (Goji) Juice, GoChi. J Altern Complement Med 2008; 14(4): 403-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0004] [PMID: 18447631]
Mousavi SM, Rahmani J, Kord-Varkaneh H, Sheikhi A, Larijani B, Esmaillzadeh A. Cinnamon supplementation positively affects obesity: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr 2020; 39(1): 123-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.02.017] [PMID: 30799194]
Celleno L, Tolaini M, D’Amore A, et al. A Dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. Int J Med Sci 2007; 4(1): 45-52.
Mahdavi R, Namazi N, Alizadeh M, Farajnia S. Effects of Nigella sativa oil with a low-calorie diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Food Funct 2015; 6(6): 2041-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5FO00316D] [PMID: 26029855]
Namazi N, Larijani B, Ayati MH, Abdollahi M. The effects of Nigella sativa L. on obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol 2018; 219(219): 173-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.03.001] [PMID: 29559374]
Park SH, Huh TL, Kim SY, et al. Antiobesity effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (actiponin): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2014; 22(1): 63-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.20539] [PMID: 23804546]
Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Vogels N, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Metabolic effects of green tea and of phases of weight loss. Physiol Behav 2006; 87(1): 185-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.09.013] [PMID: 16277999]
Lian F, Jin D, Bao Q, Zhao Y, Tong X. Effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine Jinlida granules as an add-on therapy for type 2 diabetes: A system review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Diabetes 2019; 11(7): 540-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12877] [PMID: 30430757]
Deyno S, Eneyew K, Seyfe S, et al. Efficacy and safety of cinnamon in type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre diabetes patients: A meta-analysis and meta regression. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2019. 156107815
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107815] [PMID: 31425768]
Gui QF, Xu ZR, Xu KY, Yang YM. The Efficacy of Ginseng-Related Therapies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95(6) e2584
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002584] [PMID: 26871778]
Chung W, Ryu J, Chung S, Kim S. Effect of Qingxue Dan on obesity and metabolic biomarker: a double-blind randomized-controlled pilot study J Tradit Chin Med 2016; 36(3): 291-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0254-6272(16)30040-1] [PMID: 27468542]
Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Talaei B, Jalali BA, Najarzadeh A, Mozayan MR. The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2014; 22(1): 9-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2013.12.017] [PMID: 24559810]
Choi HC, Kim SJ, Son KY, Oh BJ, Cho BL. Metabolic effects of aloe vera gel complex in obese prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients: randomized controlled trial. Nutrition 2013; 29(9): 1110-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2013.02.015] [PMID: 23735317]
Rafraf M, Zemestani M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M. Effectiveness of chamomile tea on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol Invest 2015; 38(2): 163-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-014-0170-x] [PMID: 25194428]
Jafarpour-Sadegh F, Montazeri V, Adili A, Esfehani A, Rashidi MR, Pirouzpanah S. Consumption of fresh yellow onion ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in breast cancer patients during doxorubicin-based chemotherapy: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Integr Cancer Ther 2017; 16(3): 276-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735416656915] [PMID: 27352956]
Roshan H, Nikpayam O, Sedaghat M, Sohrab G. Effects of green coffee extract supplementation on anthropometric indices, glycaemic control, blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance and appetite in patients with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised clinical trial. Br J Nutr 2018; 119(3): 250-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003439] [PMID: 29307310]
Luo YH, Zhu M, Wang DG, et al. Yangxin Tongmai Formula ameliorates impaired glucose tolerance in children with Graves’ disease through upregulation of the insulin receptor levels. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2018; 39(6): 923-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aps.2017.94] [PMID: 29168473]
Sun X, Sun H, Zhang J, Ji X. Artemisia extract improves insulin sensitivity in women with gestational diabetes mellitus by up-regulating adiponectin. J Clin Pharmacol 2016; 56(12): 1550-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.755] [PMID: 27119600]
Méndez-Del Villar M, Puebla-Pérez AM, Sánchez-Peña MJ, González-Ortiz LJ, Martínez-Abundis E, González-Ortiz M. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus administration on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. J Med Food 2016; 19(5): 481-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2016.0005] [PMID: 27097076]
Yu X, Xu L, Zhou Q, et al. The efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal formula, JTTZ, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with obesity and hyperlipidemia: a multicenter randomized, positive-controlled, open-label clinical trial. Int J Endocrinol 2018.
Qiang G, Wenzhai C, Huan Z, et al. Effect of Sancaijiangtang on plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. J Tradit Chin Med 2015; 35(4): 375-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0254-6272(15)30112-6] [PMID: 26427105]
Chen Y, Fu DY, Fu XD, He YM, Wang WJ. Effect of yiqi huaju recipe combined with routine therapy in treating hypertension patients with metabolic syndrome: a clinical study Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2014; 34(6): 680-7.
[PMID: 25046949]
Guo Q, Zhang H, Li M, et al. Efficacy and safety of Sancai powder in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. J Tradit Chin Med 2016; 36(5): 640-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0254-6272(16)30084-X] [PMID: 29933533]
Pérez-Rubio KG, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, Robles-Cervantes JA, Espinel-Bermúdez MC. Effect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2013; 11(5): 366-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2012.0183] [PMID: 23808999]
Choi MS, Ryu R, Seo YR, et al. The beneficial effect of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf extracts in adults with prediabetes: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Food Funct 2014; 5(7): 1621-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4fo00199k] [PMID: 24873894]
Manaf A, Tjandrawinata RR, Malinda D. Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa. Drug Des Devel Ther 2016; 10: 1279-89.
[PMID: 27099473]
Zhang T. Effect of Qingre Yangyin recipe on endocrine and metabolism of polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2015; 35(10): 1175-80.
[PMID: 26677666]
Xu J, Pan F, Xu H. Effect of Zhenggan Tang decoction on the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance on HBV-induced cirrhotic patients. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2015; 36(4): 399-401.
[PMID: 25975558]
Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Rezazadeh K. TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism modulates the effect of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Integr Med 2018; 16(5): 329-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2018.05.006] [PMID: 30177026]
Liu CY, Huang CJ, Huang LH, Chen IJ, Chiu JP, Hsu CH. Effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and lipid abnormalities: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One 2014; 9(3): e91163
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091163] [PMID: 24614112]
Zhou Q, Chang B, Chen XY, et al. Chinese herbal medicine for obesity: a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, prospective trial. Am J Chin Med 2014; 42(6): 1345-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X14500840] [PMID: 25406653]
Chuengsamarn S, Rattanamongkolgul S, Phonrat B, Tungtrongchitr R, Jirawatnotai S. Reduction of atherogenic risk in patients with type 2 diabetes by curcuminoid extract: a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr Biochem 2014; 25(2): 144-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.09.013] [PMID: 24445038]
Kaatabi H, Bamosa AO, Badar A, et al. Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo controlled participant blinded clinical trial. PLoS One 2015; 10(2): e0113486
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113486] [PMID: 25706772]
Huang YQ, Yang QF, Wang H, Xu YS, Peng W, Jiang YH. Long-term clinical effect of Tangyiping Granules () on patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Chin J Integr Med 2016; 22(9): 653-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-016-2512-3] [PMID: 27614450]
Haj-Husein I, Tukan S, Alkazaleh F. The effect of marjoram (Origanum majorana) tea on the hormonal profile of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled pilot study. J Hum Nutr Diet 2016; 29(1): 105-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12290] [PMID: 25662759]
Rabiei K, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Saeedi M, Bahar A, Akha O, Kashi Z. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia (walnut) leaves on blood glucose and major cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2018; 18(1): 206.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2268-8] [PMID: 29973195]
Zulet MA, Navas-Carretero S, Lara y Sánchez D, et al. A Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds/fruits extract benefits glucose homeostasis and adiposity related markers in elderly overweight/obese subjects: a longitudinal, randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study. Phytomedicine 2014; 21(10): 1162-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2014.04.027] [PMID: 24877717]
Atkin M, Laight D, Cummings MH. The effects of garlic extract upon endothelial function, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in adults with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk. A pilot double blind randomized placebo controlled trial. J Diabetes Complications 2016; 30(4): 723-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.01.003] [PMID: 26954484]
Samadi N, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Rahmanian M, Askarishahi M. Effects of bee propolis supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profile and insulin resistance indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Integr Med 2017; 15(2): 124-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60315-7] [PMID: 28285617]
Shin HC, Kim SH, Park Y, Lee BH, Hwang HJ. Effects of 12-week oral supplementation of Ecklonia cava polyphenols on anthropometric and blood lipid parameters in overweight Korean individuals: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Phytother Res 2012; 26(3): 363-8.
[PMID: 21717516]
Latiff LA, Parhizkar S, Dollah MA, Hassan ST. Alternative supplement for enhancement of reproductive health and metabolic profile among perimenopausal women: a novel role of Nigella sativa. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014; 17(12): 980-5.
[PMID: 25859301]
Asgary S, Soltani R, Zolghadr M, Keshvari M, Sarrafzadegan N. Evaluation of the effects of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on oxidative stress and serum levels of lipids, insulin and hs-CRP in adult patients with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Complement Integr Med 2016; 13(2): 175-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2015-0030] [PMID: 26982618]
Jin D, Tian J, Bao Q, et al. Does Adjuvant Treatment with Chinese Herbal Medicine to Antidiabetic Agents Have Additional Benefits in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes? A System Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. EVID-BASED COMP ALT 2019; pp. 1-14.
Lian F, Tian J, Chen X, et al. The efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine Jinlida as add-on medication in type 2 diabetes patients ineffectively managed by metformin monotherapy: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. PLoS One 2015; 10(6): e0130550
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130550] [PMID: 26098833]
Vieira Senger AE, Schwanke CH, Gomes I, Valle Gottlieb MG. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) consumption on the components of metabolic syndrome in elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 2012; 16(9): 738-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12603-012-0081-5] [PMID: 23131813]
Chu SL, Fu H, Yang JX, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of Pu’er tea extract on the regulation of metabolic syndrome. Chin J Integr Med 2011; 17(7): 492-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-011-0781-4] [PMID: 21725873]
Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SR. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis 2005; 4: 12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-4-12] [PMID: 15916709]
Hartman TJ, Zhang Z, Albert PS, et al. Reduced energy intake and weight loss on a legume-enriched diet lead to improvements in biomarkers related to chronic disease. Topics Clin Nutr 2011; 26: 208-15.
Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, Jin F. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults. Nutr Res 2009; 29(6): 414-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2009.05.011] [PMID: 19628108]
Vafa M, Mohammadi F, Shidfar F, et al. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Prev Med 2012; 3(8): 531-6.
[PMID: 22973482]
Gupta Jain S, Puri S, Misra A, Gulati S, Mani K. Effect of oral cinnamon intervention on metabolic profile and body composition of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a randomized double -blind control trial. Lipids Health Dis 2017; 16(1): 113.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-017-0504-8] [PMID: 28606084]
Bañuls C, Rovira-Llopis S, Falcón R, et al. Chronic consumption of an inositol-enriched carob extract improves postprandial glycaemia and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2016; 35(3): 600-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.05.005] [PMID: 26051494]
Bui TN, Le TH, Nguyen H, et al. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2014; 60(3): 183-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.60.183] [PMID: 25078374]
Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Boonkaew S, Suthisisang CC. Meta-analysis of the effect of herbal supplement on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 137(3): 1328-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.059] [PMID: 21843614]
Hackman RM, Havel PJ, Schwartz HJ, et al. Multinutrient supplement containing ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Obes 2006; 30(10): 1545-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803283] [PMID: 16552410]
Gao Y, Zhou H, Zhao H, et al. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medical intervention on impaired glucose tolerance. Am J Chin Med 2013; 41(1): 21-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X1350002X] [PMID: 23336504]
Stern JS, Peerson J, Mishra AT, Mathukumalli VS, Konda PR. Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management. J Med Food 2013; 16(6): 529-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2012.0178] [PMID: 23767862]
Lian F, Li G, Chen X, et al. Chinese herbal medicine Tianqi reduces progression from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99(2): 648-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-3276] [PMID: 24432995]
Shi YL, Liu WJ, Zhang XF, et al. Effect of Chinese herbal medicine Jinlida granule in treatment of patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Chin Med J (Engl) 2016; 129(19): 2281-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.190676] [PMID: 27647185]
Mirfeizi M, Mehdizadeh Tourzani Z, Mirfeizi SZ, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Rezvani HR, Afzali M. Controlling type 2 diabetes mellitus with herbal medicines: A triple-blind randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety. J Diabetes 2016; 8(5): 647-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12342] [PMID: 26362826]
Ughetto T. Glucevia Fraxinus excelsior Extract Effectively Controls Blood Glucose Levels in Randomized, Controlled Trial. Integr Med (Encinitas) 2014; 13(4): 30-2.
[PMID: 26770106]
Medagama AB, Bandara R. The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: is continued use safe and effective? Nutr J 2014; 13(1): 102.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-102] [PMID: 25331834]
Awasthi H, Nath R, Usman K, et al. Effects of a standardized Ayurvedic formulation on diabetes control in newly diagnosed Type-2 diabetics; a randomized active controlled clinical study. Complement Ther Med 2015; 23(4): 555-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2015.06.005] [PMID: 26275648]
Huseini HF, Darvishzadeh F, Heshmat R, Jafariazar Z, Raza M, Larijani B. The clinical investigation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) schrad fruit in treatment of Type II diabetic patients: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2009; 23(8): 1186-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2754] [PMID: 19170143]
Kuriyan R, Rajendran R, Bantwal G, Kurpad AV. Effect of supplementation of Coccinia cordifolia extract on newly detected diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2008; 31(2): 216-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc07-1591] [PMID: 18000183]
Gao Y, Lan J, Dai X, et al. A phase I/II study of Ling Zhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetidae) extract in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Med Mushrooms 2004; 6: 33-9.
Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Hoa NK, Ostenson CG. Antidiabetic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea in randomly assigned type 2 diabetic patients. Horm Metab Res 2010; 42(5): 353-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1248298] [PMID: 20213586]
Shidfar F, Rajab A, Rahideh T, Khandouzi N, Hosseini S, Shidfar S. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on glycemic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Complement Integr Med 2015; 12(2): 165-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2014-0021] [PMID: 25719344]
Korecova M, Hladikova M. Treatment of mild and moderate type-2 diabetes: open prospective trial with Hintonia latiflora extract. Eur J Med Res 2014; 19: 16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2047-783X-19-16] [PMID: 24678614]
Kianbakht S, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Dabaghian FH. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Lab 2013; 59(9-10): 1071-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2012.121019] [PMID: 24273930]
Dick WR, Fletcher EA, Shah SA. Reduction of fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c using oral aloe vera: A meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med 2016; 22(6): 450-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2015.0122] [PMID: 27152917]
Hariharan RS, Vankataraman S, Sunitha P, et al. Efficacy of vijayasar (Pterocarpus marsupium) in the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A flexible dose double-blind multicenter randomized controlled trial. Diabetol Croat 2005; 34: 13-20.
Jayawardena MH, de Alwis NM, Hettigoda V, Fernando DJ. A double blind randomised placebo controlled cross over study of a herbal preparation containing Salacia reticulata in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 97(2): 215-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.10.026] [PMID: 15707755]
Senadheera SP, Ekanayake S, Wanigatunge C. Anti-hyperglycaemic effects of herbal porridge made of Scoparia dulcis leaf extract in diabetics - a randomized crossover clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015; 15: 410.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0935-6] [PMID: 26582144]
Hussain SA. Silymarin as an adjunct to glibenclamide therapy improves long-term and postprandial glycemic control and body mass index in type 2 diabetes. J Med Food 2007; 10(3): 543-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2006.089] [PMID: 17887949]
Huseini HF, Larijani B, Heshmat R, et al. The efficacy of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) in the treatment of type II diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Phytother Res 2006; 20(12): 1036-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1988] [PMID: 17072885]
Kang MJ, Kim JI, Yoon SY, Kim JC, Cha IJ. Pinitol from soybeans reduces postprandial blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 2006; 9(2): 182-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2006.9.182] [PMID: 16822203]
Fujita H, Yamagami T, Ohshima K. Long-term ingestion of a fermented soybean-derived Touchi-extract with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity is safe and effective in humans with borderline and mild type-2 diabetes. J Nutr 2001; 131(8): 2105-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.8.2105] [PMID: 11481402]
Lan J, Zhao Y, Dong F, et al. Meta-analysis of the effect and safety of berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia and hypertension. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 161: 69-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.049] [PMID: 25498346]
Tu X, Xie C, Wang F, et al. Fructus mume formula in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.: 2013787459
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/787459] [PMID: 23533521]
Xu J, Lian F, Zhao L, et al. Structural modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of type 2 diabetes with a Chinese herbal formula. ISME J 2015; 9(3): 552-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2014.177] [PMID: 25279787]
Tian J, Jin D, Bao Q, et al. Evidence and potential mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 2019; 21(8): 1801-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.13760] [PMID: 31050124]
Ji L, Tong X, Wang H, et al. Efficacy and safety of traditional chinese medicine for diabetes: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. PLoS One 2013; 8(2): e56703
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056703] [PMID: 23460810]
Tong XL, Wu ST, Lian FM, et al. The safety and effectiveness of TM81, a Chinese herbal medicine, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013; 15(5): 448-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.12051] [PMID: 23231379]
Ma J, Xu L, Dong J, et al. Effects of zishentongluo in patients with early-stage diabetic nephropathy. Am J Chin Med 2013; 41(2): 333-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X13500249] [PMID: 23548123]
Hsu CH, Liao YL, Lin SC, Hwang KC, Chou P. The mushroom Agaricus Blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med 2007; 13(1): 97-102.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2006.6054] [PMID: 17309383]
Mucalo I, Jovanovski E, Rahelić D, Božikov V, Romić Z, Vuksan V. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on arterial stiffness in subjects with type-2 diabetes and concomitant hypertension. J Ethnopharmacol 2013; 150(1): 148-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.015] [PMID: 23973636]
Fenercioglu AK, Saler T, Genc E, Sabuncu H, Altuntas Y. The effects of polyphenol-containing antioxidants on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without complications. J Endocrinol Invest 2010; 33(2): 118-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03346565] [PMID: 19834314]
Mackenzie T, Leary L, Brooks WB. The effect of an extract of green and black tea on glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: double-blind randomized study. Metabolism 2007; 56(10): 1340-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2007.05.018] [PMID: 17884442]
Allen RW, Schwartzman E, Baker WL, Coleman CI, Phung OJ. Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Fam Med 2013; 11(5): 452-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.1517] [PMID: 24019277]
Barre DE, Mizier-Barre KA, Griscti O, Hafez K. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics. J Oleo Sci 2008; 57(5): 269-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.57.269] [PMID: 18391475]
Liu X, Wei J, Tan F, Zhou S, Würthwein G, Rohdewald P. Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci 2004; 75(21): 2505-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2003.10.043] [PMID: 15363656]
Hosseini S, Jamshidi L, Mehrzadi S, et al. Effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract on hyperglycemia and lipid profiles in type two diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 152(3): 451-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.012] [PMID: 24462785]
Pu R, Geng XN, Yu F, Liang HG, Shi LW. Liuwei dihuang pills enhance the effect of Western medicine in treating type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chin J Integr Med 2013; 19(10): 783-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-013-1591-7] [PMID: 24092243]
Dans AM, Villarruz MV, Jimeno CA, et al. The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies. J Clin Epidemiol 2007; 60(6): 554-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.07.009] [PMID: 17493509]
Yin RV, Lee NC, Hirpara H, Phung OJ. 2014.
Hashem Dabaghian F, Abdollahifard M, Khalighi Sigarudi F, et al. Effects of Rosa canina L. fruit on glycemia and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Faslnamah-i Giyahan-i Daruyi 2015; 14: 95-104.
Behradmanesh S, Derees F, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients. J Renal Inj Prev 2013; 2(2): 51-4.
[PMID: 25340127]
Jayagopal V, Albertazzi P, Kilpatrick ES, et al. Beneficial effects of soy phytoestrogen intake in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(10): 1709-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.10.1709] [PMID: 12351466]
Kumar V, Mahdi F, Singh R, Mahdi AA, Singh RK. A Clinical Trial to Assess the Antidiabetic, Antidyslipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of Tinospora Cordifolia in Management of Type - 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016; 7(2): 757-64.
Sangsuwan C, Udompanthurak S, Vannasaeng S, Thamlikitkul V. Randomized controlled trial of Tinospora crispa for additional therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai 2004; 87(5): 543-6.
[PMID: 15222526]
Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P III. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med 2005; 118(9): 998-1003.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.02.034] [PMID: 16164886]
Larmo PS, Kangas AJ, Soininen P, et al. Effects of sea buckthorn and bilberry on serum metabolites differ according to baseline metabolic profiles in overweight women: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 98(4): 941-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.060590] [PMID: 23945716]
Lehtonen HM, Suomela JP, Tahvonen R, et al. Different berries and berry fractions have various but slightly positive effects on the associated variables of metabolic diseases on overweight and obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011; 65(3): 394-401.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2010.268] [PMID: 21224867]
Kim SY, Oh MR, Kim MG, Chae HJ, Chae SW. Anti-obesity effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015; 15: 338.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0859-1] [PMID: 26408319]
Birketvedt GS, Travis A, Langbakk B, Florholmen JR. Dietary supplementation with bean extract improves lipid profile in overweight and obese subjects. Nutrition 2002; 18(9): 729-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(02)00831-6] [PMID: 12297207]
LaRiccia PJ, Farrar JT, Sammel MD, Gallo JJ. Chinese herbal medicine TangBi Formula treatment of patients with type 2 diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2017; 18(1): 631.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 01 July, 2020
Page: [4430 - 4443]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200701205132
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 17
PRC: 1