Modulation of MicroRNAs by Euphorbia Microsciadia Boiss in MDA-MB-231 Cell Line: New Possibilities in Breast Cancer Therapy

Author(s): Mohammad-Reza Mahmoudian-Sani, Majid Asadi-Samani*

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Background: A large number of Euphorbia species have been evaluated for anticancer effects; however, their anticancer mechanisms have not been established up to now.

Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Euphorbia microsciadia (E. microsciadia) Boiss on the modulation of micro (mi) RNAs in MDA-MB-231 cell line.

Methods: As the first step, the inhibitory concentration of hydroalcoholic extract of E. microsciadia on MDA-MB-231 cells was examined using the MTT assay, bypassing 24 and 48h from seeding. The real-time quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) was also utilized to determine Let-7, miR-15, miR-16, miR-29, miR-151, miR-155, miR-21, miR-146b, miR-181b, miR-221, miR-222, miR-21, and miR-146b expressions in MDA-MB-231 cells, by passing 24 and 48h from treating with the extract of E. microsciadia.

Results: The results reveal the cytotoxic effects of E. microsciadia on MDA-MB-231 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal Inhibitory Concentrations (IC50) were also equal to 275 and 240μg/ml for E. microsciadia, by passing 24 and 48h from the treatment, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that, E. microsciadia had augmented the expression levels of Let-7, miR-15, miR-16, miR-29, and miR-34a, which lead to an increase in apoptosis.

Conclusion: E. microsciadia could modulate some miRNAs involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cell line. Accordingly, targeting miRNAs by E. microsciadia can open some newer avenues for breast cancer therapy.

Keywords: Apoptosis, breast cancer, cell cycle, euphorbia, microRNA, miR-34a, tumor suppressor.

[1]
Lin X, Peng Z, Su C. Potential anti-cancer activities and mechanisms of costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone. Int J Mol Sci 2015; 16(5): 10888-906.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms160510888] [PMID: 25984608]
[2]
El-sawy MFE-D, Helmy SHA, Day ML, Rubin JR, Lorenzatti G. Medicinal Ambrosia maritima extracts. US20170071994, 2017.
[3]
Ackova DG, Smilkov K, Bosnakovski D. Contemporary formulations for drug delivery of anticancer bioactive compounds. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2019; 14(1): 19-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574892814666190111104834] [PMID: 30636616]
[4]
Hussain H, Green IR, Saleem M, Khattak KF, Irshad M, Ali M. Cucurbitacins as anticancer agents: A patent review. Recent Patents Anticancer Drug Discov 2019; 14(2): 133-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574892813666181119123035] [PMID: 30451116]
[5]
Ayatollahi AM, Ghanadian M, Afsharypuor S, Siddiq S, Pour-Hosseini SM. Biological screening of Euphorbia aellenii. Iran J Pharm Res 2010; 9(4): 429-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2010.910] [PMID: 24381609]
[6]
Asadi-Samani M, Khaledi M, Khaledi F, Samarghandian S, Gholipour A. Phytochemical properties and antibacterial effects of Salvia multicaulis Vahl., Euphorbia microsciadia Boiss., and Reseda lutea on Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanii. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2019; 14(3): e63640.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjnpp.63640]
[7]
Namdari H, Izad M, Amirghofran Z. Modulation of CD4+ T cell subsets by Euphorbia microciadia and Euphorbia osyridea plant extracts. Iran J Immunol 2017; 14(2): 134-50.
[PMID: 28630384]
[8]
Nabatchian F, Moradi A, Aghaei M, Ghanadian M, Jafari SM, Tabesh S. New 6(17)-epoxylathyrane diterpene: Aellinane from Euphorbia aellenii induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in ovarian cancer cell line. Toxicol Mech Methods 2017; 27(8): 622-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2017.1347735] [PMID: 28651465]
[9]
Asadi-Samani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Lorigooini Z, Shirzad H. The effect of Euphorbia szovitsii Fisch. & C.A.Mey extract on the viability and the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cell line. Biosci Rep 2019; 39(1): BSR20181538
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20181538] [PMID: 30459240]
[10]
Shadi S, Saeidi H, Ghanadian M, et al. New macrocyclic diterpenes from Euphorbia connata Boiss. with cytotoxic activities on human breast cancer cell lines. Nat Prod Res 2015; 29(7): 607-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.979418] [PMID: 25426544]
[11]
Fu Z, Han X, Du J, et al. Euphorbia lunulata extract acts on multidrug resistant gastric cancer cells to inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion, arrest cell cycle progression, and induce apoptosis. J Ethnopharmacol 2018; 212: 8-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.08.014] [PMID: 28811220]
[12]
Lingaraju K, Raja Naika H, Nagaraju G, Nagabhushana H. Biocompatible synthesis of reduced graphene oxide from Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) and their in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2019; 24: e00376.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2019.e00376] [PMID: 31641620]
[13]
Silva VAO, Rosa MN, Martinho O, et al. Modified ingenol semi-synthetic derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli induce cytotoxicity on a large panel of human cancer cell lines. Invest New Drugs 2019; 37(5): 1029-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00728-0] [PMID: 30706338]
[14]
Bano S, Siddiqui BS, Farooq AD, et al. In vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity of Euphorbia caducifolia against four human cancer cell lines and its phytochemical characterisation. Nat Prod Res 2017; 31(24): 2936-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1305380] [PMID: 28403658]
[15]
Shanmugapriya N, Sasidharan S. MicroRNA deregulation and cancer and medicinal plants as microRNA regulator. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2020; 10(2): 47-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.275419]
[16]
Ahmed F, Ijaz B, Ahmad Z, Farooq N, Sarwar MB, Husnain T. Modification of miRNA Expression through plant extracts and compounds against breast cancer: Mechanism and translational significance. Phytomedicine 2020; 68: 153168.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153168] [PMID: 31982837]
[17]
Cong L, Zhao Y, Pogue AI, Lukiw WJ. Role of microRNA (miRNA) and viroids in lethal diseases of plants and animals. Potential contribution to human neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2018; 83(9): 1018-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297918090031] [PMID: 30472940]
[18]
Gezici S, Sekeroglu N. Regulation of MicroRNAs by natural products and bioactive compounds obtained from common medicinal plants: Novel strategy in cancer therapy. Indian J Pharm Edu Res 2017; 51(3): S483-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/ijper.51.3s.71]
[19]
Mehrgou A, Akouchekian M. Therapeutic impacts of microRNAs in breast cancer by their roles in regulating processes involved in this disease. J Res Med Sci 2017; 22: 130.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_967_16] [PMID: 29387117]
[20]
Berezikov E, Poell JB, Gommans WM, et al. MiRNA and its diagnostic and therapeutic uses in diseases or conditions associated with melanoma, or in diseases or conditions associated with activated BRAF pathway. US20170304348, 2017.
[21]
Greco SJ, Rameshwar P. MicroRNA compositions and methods of making and using same. US20170314019, 2017.
[22]
Xie W, Weng A, Melzig MF. MicroRNAs as new bioactive components in medicinal plants. Planta Med 2016; 82(13): 1153-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-108450] [PMID: 27272400]
[23]
E Nicolas F. Lopez-Gomollon S, F Lopez-Martinez A, Dalmay T. Silencing human cancer: Identification and uses of microRNAs. Recent Patents Anticancer Drug Discov 2011; 6(1): 94-105.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157489211793980033]
[24]
Zhao Q, Li P, Ma J, Yu X. MicroRNAs in lung cancer and lung cancer bone metastases: Biomarkers for early diagnosis and targets for treatment. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2015; 10(2): 182-200.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574892810666150120163617] [PMID: 25600282]
[25]
Saleh AD, Van Waes C, Chen Z, Cheng H. MicroRNAs and methods of their use. WO2017156015, 2019.
[26]
Bonci D. MicroRNA-21 as therapeutic target in cancer and cardiovascular disease. Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov 2010; 5(3): 156-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157489010793351962] [PMID: 20649511]
[27]
Jain CK, Gupta A, Dogra N, Kumar VS, Wadhwa G, Sharma SK. MicroRNA therapeutics: The emerging anticancer strategies. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2014; 9(3): 286-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574892809666140307101519] [PMID: 24605908]
[28]
Agrawal A, Dang S, Gabrani R. Recent patents on anti-telomerase cancer therapy. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2012; 7(1): 102-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157489212798357958] [PMID: 21854360]
[29]
Li Y, Kong D, Wang Z, Sarkar FH. Regulation of microRNAs by natural agents: An emerging field in chemoprevention and chemotherapy research. Pharm Res 2010; 27(6): 1027-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0105-y] [PMID: 20306121]
[30]
DeSantis CE, Ma J, Gaudet MM, et al. Breast cancer statistics CA: Cancer J Clin 2019; 69(6): 438-51.
[31]
Wang W, Luo YP. MicroRNAs in breast cancer: Oncogene and tumor suppressors with clinical potential. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2015; 16(1): 18-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1400184] [PMID: 25559952]
[32]
Felekkis K, Touvana E, Stefanou Ch, Deltas C. microRNAs: A newly described class of encoded molecules that play a role in health and disease. Hippokratia 2010; 14(4): 236-40.
[PMID: 21311629]
[33]
Ogunwobi OO, Das DK. iRNAs useful for identifying targets associated with cancer. US20170121711, 2019.
[34]
Croce CM, Calin GA. MicroRNA-based methods and compositions for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. US20160251659, 2014.
[35]
Tsai HP, Huang SF, Li CF, Chien HT, Chen SC. Differential microRNA expression in breast cancer with different onset age. PLoS One 2018; 13(1): e0191195.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191195] [PMID: 29324832]
[36]
Venkatadri R, Muni T, Iyer AK, Yakisich JS, Azad N. Role of apoptosis-related miRNAs in resveratrol-induced breast cancer cell death. Cell Death Dis 2016; 7: e2104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2016.6] [PMID: 26890143]
[37]
Sethi S, Li Y, Sarkar FH. Regulating miRNA by natural agents as a new strategy for cancer treatment. Curr Drug Targets 2013; 14(10): 1167-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/13894501113149990189] [PMID: 23834152]
[38]
Sarkar FH, Padhye S. Novel analogs of curcumin and methods of use. US20140303109, 2014.
[39]
Asadi-Samani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Lorigooini Z, Shirzad H. A screening of growth inhibitory activity of Iranian medicinal plants on prostate cancer cell lines. Biomedicine (Taipei) 2018; 8(2): 8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/bmdcn/2018080208] [PMID: 29806586]
[40]
Asadi-Samani M, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Lorigooini Z, Shirzad H. A screening of anti-breast cancer effects and antioxidant activity of twenty medicinal plants gathered from Chaharmahal va Bakhtyari province, Iran. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2019; 7(3): 213-22.
[41]
Jadhav P, Kapoor N, Thomas B, Lal H, Kshirsagar N. Antiviral potential of selected Indian medicinal (ayurvedic) plants against herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. N Am J Med Sci 2012; 4(12): 641-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.104316] [PMID: 23272307]
[42]
Yu F, Yao H, Zhu P, et al. let-7 regulates self renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells. Cell 2007; 131(6): 1109-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.054] [PMID: 18083101]
[43]
Luo Q, Li X, Li J, et al. MiR-15a is underexpressed and inhibits the cell cycle by targeting CCNE1 in breast cancer. Int J Oncol 2013; 43(4): 1212-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2013.2034] [PMID: 23900351]
[44]
Liu Q, Fu H, Sun F, et al. miR-16 family induces cell cycle arrest by regulating multiple cell cycle genes. Nucleic Acids Res 2008; 36(16): 5391-404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn522] [PMID: 18701644]
[45]
Wu Z, Huang X, Huang X, Zou Q, Guo Y. The inhibitory role of Mir-29 in growth of breast cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2013; 32: 98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-32-98] [PMID: 24289849]
[46]
Yeh TC, Huang TT, Yeh TS, et al. miR-151-3p targets TWIST1 to repress migration of human breast cancer cells. PLoS One 2016; 11(12): e0168171.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168171] [PMID: 27930738]
[47]
Jiang S, Zhang HW, Lu MH, et al. MicroRNA-155 functions as an OncomiR in breast cancer by targeting the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 gene. Cancer Res 2010; 70(8): 3119-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4250] [PMID: 20354188]
[48]
Meng F, Henson R, Wehbe-Janek H, Ghoshal K, Jacob ST, Patel T. MicroRNA-21 regulates expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in human hepatocellular cancer. Gastroenterology 2007; 133(2): 647-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2007.05.022] [PMID: 17681183]
[49]
Miller TE, Ghoshal K, Ramaswamy B, et al. MicroRNA-221/222 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting p27Kip1. J Biol Chem 2008; 283(44): 29897-903.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M804612200] [PMID: 18708351]
[50]
Sun X, Icli B, Wara AK, et al. MICU Registry. MicroRNA-181b regulates NF-κB-mediated vascular inflammation. J Clin Invest 2012; 122(6): 1973-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI61495] [PMID: 22622040]
[51]
Yu Z, Baserga R, Chen L, Wang C, Lisanti MP, Pestell RG. microRNA, cell cycle, and human breast cancer. Am J Pathol 2010; 176(3): 1058-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2010.090664] [PMID: 20075198]
[52]
Bhaumik D, Scott GK, Schokrpur S, Patil CK, Campisi J, Benz CC. Expression of microRNA-146 suppresses NF-kappaB activity with reduction of metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. Oncogene 2008; 27(42): 5643-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/onc.2008.171] [PMID: 18504431]
[53]
Mognato M, Celotti L. MicroRNAs used in combination with anti-cancer treatments can enhance therapy efficacy. Mini Rev Med Chem 2015; 15(13): 1052-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557515666150709115355] [PMID: 26156420]
[54]
Nimmo RA, Slack FJ. An elegant miRror: microRNAs in stem cells, developmental timing and cancer. Chromosoma 2009; 118(4): 405-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00412-009-0210-z] [PMID: 19340450]
[55]
Cimmino A, Calin GA, Fabbri M, et al. miR-15 and miR-16 induce apoptosis by targeting BCL2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102(39): 13944-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0506654102] [PMID: 16166262]
[56]
Yang J, Cao Y, Sun J, Zhang Y. Curcumin reduces the expression of Bcl-2 by upregulating miR-15a and miR-16 in MCF-7 cells. Med Oncol 2010; 27(4): 1114-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-009-9344-3] [PMID: 19908170]
[57]
Calin GA, Cimmino A, Fabbri M, et al. MiR-15a and miR-16-1 cluster functions in human leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105(13): 5166-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0800121105] [PMID: 18362358]
[58]
Ovcharenko D, Kelnar K, Johnson C, Leng N, Brown D. Genome-scale microRNA and small interfering RNA screens identify small RNA modulators of TRAIL-induced apoptosis pathway. Cancer Res 2007; 67(22): 10782-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1484] [PMID: 18006822]
[59]
Asaga S, Kuo C, Nguyen T, Terpenning M, Giuliano AE, Hoon DS. Direct serum assay for microRNA-21 concentrations in early and advanced breast cancer. Clin Chem 2011; 57(1): 84-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2010.151845] [PMID: 21036945]
[60]
Feng YH, Tsao CJ. Emerging role of microRNA-21 in cancer. Biomed Rep 2016; 5(4): 395-402.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2016.747] [PMID: 27699004]
[61]
Hurst DR, Edmonds MD, Scott GK, Benz CC, Vaidya KS, Welch DR. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 up-regulates miR-146, which suppresses breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Res 2009; 69(4): 1279-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3559] [PMID: 19190326]
[62]
Katakowski M, Zheng X, Jiang F, Rogers T, Szalad A, Chopp M. MiR-146b-5p suppresses EGFR expression and reduces in vitro migration and invasion of glioma. Cancer Invest 2010; 28(10): 1024-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07357907.2010.512596] [PMID: 20874002]
[63]
Liu J, Shi W, Wu C, Ju J, Jiang J. miR-181b as a key regulator of the oncogenic process and its clinical implications in cancer (Review). Biomed Rep 2014; 2(1): 7-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2013.199] [PMID: 24649060]
[64]
Kronski E, Fiori ME, Barbieri O, et al. miR181b is induced by the chemopreventive polyphenol curcumin and inhibits breast cancer metastasis via down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and -2. Mol Oncol 2014; 8(3): 581-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molonc.2014.01.005] [PMID: 24484937]
[65]
Dehkordi KA, Chaleshtori MH, Sharifi M, et al. Inhibition of MicroRNA miR-222 with LNA Inhibitor can reduce cell proliferation in B chronic lymphoblastic leukemia. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2017; 33(3): 327-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-016-0694-7] [PMID: 28824233]
[66]
Piva R, Spandidos DA, Gambari R. From microRNA functions to microRNA therapeutics: Novel targets and novel drugs in breast cancer research and treatment (Review). Int J Oncol 2013; 43(4): 985-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2013.2059] [PMID: 23939688]
[67]
Rao X, Di Leva G, Li M, et al. MicroRNA-221/222 confers breast cancer fulvestrant resistance by regulating multiple signaling pathways. Oncogene 2011; 30(9): 1082-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/onc.2010.487] [PMID: 21057537]
[68]
Croce CM, Liu C-G, Calin GA, Sevignani C. Diagnosis and treatment of cancers with microrna located in or near cancer-associated chromosomal features. US20170175123, 2017.
[69]
Barnett-Itzhaki Z, Yanai GL, Meiri E, Spector Y, Benjamin H, Dromi N. MiRNA expression signature in the classification of thyroid tumors. US9708667, 2019.
[70]
Shen J, Kelnar K, Shelton J, Brown D, Campochiaro P. Compositions and methods related to miRNA modulation of neovascularization or angiogenesis. US9540645, 2017.
[71]
Li Z, Chen H. miR-34a inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of paediatric neuroblastoma cells via targeting HNF4α. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019; 47(1): 3072-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1637886] [PMID: 31343368]
[72]
Ma S, Fu T, Zhao S, Gao M. MicroRNA-34a-5p suppresses tumorigenesis and progression of glioma and potentiates Temozolomide-induced cytotoxicity for glioma cells by targeting HMGA2. Eur J Pharmacol 2019; 852: 42-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.03.005] [PMID: 30851271]
[73]
Corney DC, Flesken-Nikitin A, Godwin AK, Wang W, Nikitin AY. MicroRNA-34b and microRNA-34c are targets of p53 and cooperate in control of cell proliferation and adhesion-independent growth. Cancer Res 2007; 67(18): 8433-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-1585] [PMID: 17823410]
[74]
Zhang L, Yang X, Lv Y, et al. Cytosolic co-delivery of miRNA-34a and docetaxel with core-shell nanocarriers via caveolae-mediated pathway for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Sci Rep 2017; 7: 46186.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep46186] [PMID: 28383524]
[75]
Agostini M, Knight RA. miR-34: From bench to bedside. Oncotarget 2014; 5(4): 872-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.1825] [PMID: 24657911]
[76]
Kang L, Mao J, Tao Y, et al. MicroRNA-34a suppresses the breast cancer stem cell-like characteristics by downregulating Notch1 pathway. Cancer Sci 2015; 106(6): 700-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.12656] [PMID: 25783790]
[77]
Guo J, Li W, Shi H, et al. Synergistic effects of curcumin with emodin against the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells through upregulation of miR-34a. Mol Cell Biochem 2013; 382(1-2): 103-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-013-1723-6] [PMID: 23771315]
[78]
Shi L, Chen J, Yang J, Pan T, Zhang S, Wang Z. MiR-21 protected human glioblastoma U87MG cells from chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide induced apoptosis by decreasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activity. Brain Res 2010; 1352: 255-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.07.009] [PMID: 20633539]
[79]
Sims EK, Lakhter AJ, Anderson-Baucum E, Kono T, Tong X, Evans-Molina C. MicroRNA 21 targets Bcl2 mRNA to increase apoptosis in rat and human beta cells. Diabetologia 2017; 60(6): 1057-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4237-z] [PMID: 28280903]
[80]
Choene M, Motadi L. Validation of the antiproliferative effects of Euphorbia tirucalli extracts in breast cancer cell lines. Mol Biol (Mosk) 2016; 50(1): 115-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7868/S0026898416010043] [PMID: 27028817]
[81]
Iriti M, Kubina R, Cochis A, et al. Rutin, a quercetin glycoside, restores chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells. Phytother Res 2017; 31(10): 1529-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5878] [PMID: 28752532]
[82]
Aylward JH. Anti-cancer compounds. US6787161, 2004.
[83]
Chen Y-J, Lin L-C, Lin C-P. Use of compounds isolated from Euphorbia neriifolia for treating cancer and/or thrombocytopenia. US8846768, 2014.
[84]
Lin C-H, Cheng W-C. Euphorbia antiquorum extract, a pharmaceutical composition containing the same and methods for treatment of cancers. US20030165579, 2003.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Published on: 29 June, 2020
Page: [174 - 184]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1574892815666200630102944
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 33
HTML: 3