Identification of a Pathogenic PSEN1 Ala285Val Mutation Associated with Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

Author(s): Van Giau Vo, Jung-Min Pyun, Eva Bagyinszky, Seong S.A. An*, Sang Y. Kim*

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Volume 17 , Issue 5 , 2020


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Abstract:

Background: Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) was suggested as the most common causative gene of early onset Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).

Methods: Patient who presented progressive memory decline in her 40s was enrolled in this study. A broad battery of neuropsychological tests and neuroimaging was applied to make the diagnosis. Genetic tests were performed in the patient to evaluate possible mutations using whole exome sequencing. The pathogenic nature of missense mutation and its 3D protein structure prediction were performed by in silico prediction programs.

Results: A pathogenic mutation in PSEN1 (NM_000021.3: c.1027T>C p.Ala285Val), which was found in a Korean EOAD patient. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed mild left temporal lobe atrophy. Hypometabolism appeared through 18F-fludeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) scanning in bilateral temporal and parietal lobe, and 18F-Florbetaben-PET (FBB-PET) showed increased amyloid deposition in bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal lobe and hence presumed preclinical AD. Protein modeling showed that the p.Ala285Val is located in the random coil region and could result in extra stress in this region, resulting in the replacement of an alanine residue with a valine. This prediction was confirmed previous in vitro studies that the p.Trp165Cys resulted in an elevated Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in both COS-1 and HEK293 cell lines compared that of wild-type control.

Conclusion: Together, the clinical characteristics and the effect of the mutation would facilitate our understanding of PSEN1 in AD pathogenesis for the disease diagnosis and treatment. Future in vivo study is needed to evaluate the role of PSEN1 p.Ala285Val mutation in AD progression.

Keywords: Alzheimer`s disease, PSEN1, p.Ala285Val, genetics, mutation, neurodegenerative genes.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2020
Published on: 26 June, 2020
Page: [438 - 445]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1567205017666200626210727
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