Background: Streptomyces sp. produces various antibiotic agents and the number of lead
molecules from the genus Streptomyces increased rapidly in recent years. Drug resistance against various
commercially available antibiotics is one of the important problems throughout the world. Streptomyces
spp. produce various antimicrobials with potent activity against drug-resistant bacteria.
Methods: Streptomyces sp. SA1 was isolated from the marine environment for the biosynthesis of antibiotics.
The important variables influencing secondary metabolite biosynthesis were optimized to increase
the biosynthesis of antimicrobial agents using the traditional method and statistical approach.
Results: Streptomyces sp. SA1 produced novel antibiotics and the process variables were optimized by
the traditional method (One-variable-at-a-time approach). Maltose showed maximum antimicrobial activity
(220 U/mL). Analysis of the nitrogen, the effect of nitrogen sources revealed that beef extract incorporated
culture medium showed rich antibacterial activity (188/mL). Among the ionic sources, KCl
significantly influenced antibiotic production. Maltose, beef extract and KCl were considered as the
most influencing medium components. Antimicrobial agent biosynthesis was achieved with maltose
1.22 g/L, beef extract 0.93 g/L and KCl 0.27 g/L in response surface methodology.
Conclusion: Actinomycetes, especially Streptomyces, play an important role as a source for bioactive
compounds that are used to treat infections, and many other diseases. The isolated Streptomyces sp.
was a good producer of antibacterial agent, which required various nutritional supplements in the culture
medium. The optimized medium components investigated in this study will be useful for future
studies with the mass production of secondary metabolites.