Carbonylation reactions with carbon monoxide (CO) provide efficient and attractive
routes for the synthesis of bulk and fine chemicals. However, the practice of using a
large excess of an inflammable, lethal and greenhouse CO gas is always a concern in this
chemistry. The development of CO surrogates has gained substantial interest and become a
green alternative to gaseous CO. Many of the recent studies have focused on the development
of other benign and safe reagents to work as a CO source in carbonylation reactions,
and the assortment of feasible CO surrogates for specific reaction can be accomplished by
the literature data. This review describes the recent developments in palladium-catalyzed
carbonyl insertions without the direct use of gaseous CO.
Keywords: Palladium, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, coupling reaction, CO surrogates, carbonylation, CO gas free, green synthesis.
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