CRISPR Genome Editing Technology and its Application in Genetic Diseases: A Review

Author(s): Sepideh Khatibi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Seyed H. Aghaee-Bakhtiari*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 22 , Issue 4 , 2021


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Abstract:

Gene therapy has been a long lasting goal for scientists, and there are many optimal methods and tools to correct disease-causing mutations in humans. Recently, the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been progressively adopted for the assessment a treatment of human diseases, including thalassemia, Parkinson's disease, cystic fibrosis, glaucoma, Huntington’s disease, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). CRISPR sequences belong to the bacterial immune system, which includes the nuclease Cas enzyme and an RNA sequence. The RNA sequence is unique and pathogen-specific, and identifies and binds to the DNA of invasive viruses, allowing the nuclease Cas enzyme to cut the identified DNA and destroy the invasive viruses. This feature provides the possibility to edit mutations in the DNA sequence of live cells by replacing a specific targeted RNA sequence with the RNA sequence in the CRISPR system. Previous studies have reported the improvement steps in confrontation with human diseases caused by single-nucleotide mutations using this system. In this review, we first introduce CRISPR and its functions and then elaborate on the use of CRISPR in the treatment of human diseases.

Keywords: CRISPR technology, genome editing, human genetic disease, nuclease Cas enzyme, AIDS, mutations.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 22
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2021
Published on: 27 April, 2021
Page: [468 - 479]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1389201021666200621161610
Price: $65

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