Evidence Linking Protein Misfolding to Quality Control in Progressive Neurodegenerative Diseases

Author(s): Md. Tanvir Kabir, Md. Sahab Uddin*, Ahmed Abdeen, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Asma Perveen, Abdul Hafeez, May N. Bin-Jumah, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 23 , 2020

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Abstract:

Several proteolytic systems including ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS), chaperonemediated autophagy (CMA), and macroautophagy are used by the mammalian cells to remove misfolded proteins (MPs). UPS mediates degradation of most of the MPs, where Ub-conjugated substrates are deubiquitinated, unfolded, and passed through the proteasome’s narrow chamber, and eventually break into smaller peptides. It has been observed that the substrates that show a specific degradation signal, the KFERQ sequence motif, can be delivered to and go through CMA-mediated degradation in lysosomes. Macroautophagy can help in the degradation of substrates that are prone to aggregation and resistant to both the CMA and UPS. In the aforesaid case, cargoes are separated into autophagosomes before lysosomal hydrolase-mediated degradation. Even though the majority of the aggregated and MPs in the human proteome can be removed via cellular protein quality control (PQC), some mutant and native proteins tend to aggregate into β-sheet-rich oligomers that exhibit resistance to all identified proteolytic processes and can, therefore, grow into extracellular plaques or inclusion bodies. Indeed, the buildup of protease-resistant aggregated and MPs is a usual process underlying various protein misfolding disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) for example Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases. In this article, we have focused on the contribution of PQC in the degradation of pathogenic proteins in NDs.

Keywords: Protein misfolding, Ubiquitin-proteasome system, Macroautophagy, Chaperone mediated autophagy, Neurodegeneration, Amyloid β, Tau.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 23
Year: 2020
Page: [2025 - 2043]
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.2174/1568026620666200618114924
Price: $65

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