COVID-19: Morphology, Characteristics, Symptoms, Prevention, Clinical Diagnosis and Current Scenario

Author(s): Tansukh Barupal, Praveen Kumar Tak, Mukesh Meena*

Journal Name: Coronaviruses
The World's First International Journal Dedicated to Coronaviruses

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Background: There are different types of viruses found in nature which cause infection in humans and other animals, some causing severe illness and others not. A unique coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent.

Objective: This review article includes characteristics of COVID-19, current scenario of disease, causes and symptoms of disease and how to prevent from its infection.

Methods: We accomplished a comprehensive evaluation of the communication amid COVID-19 disease and serious effects of the disease. There are many articles describing the general characteristics, prevention and its harmful effects on humans which were included. The clinical diagnosis and present scenario of the disease were also reviewed.

Results: The recent outbreak of contagions with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Many governments of the world, scholars and scientists are engaged to discover the proper treatment and until a proper and right treatment for it is found, we have to be careful to avoid infection.

Conclusion: At present, the whole world is struggling with COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 quickly spread into at least 215 countries and exterminated more than 300,000 persons by May 15, 2020. This is the time to exercise restraint and caution. The rapid extent of disease allows deep examination and quarantine conventions to prevent further transmission.

Keywords: Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, pandemic, infection.

[1]
Cheng VCC, Wong SC, To KKW, Ho PL, Yuen KY. Preparedness and proactive infection control measures against the emerging novel coronavirus in China. J Hosp Infect 2020; 104(3): 254-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.010] [PMID: 31962139]
[2]
Yuen KY, Chan PK, Peiris M, et al. Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. Lancet 1998; 351(9101): 467-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(98)01182-9] [PMID: 9482437]
[3]
Cheng VC, Lau SK, Woo PC, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007; 20: 660-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00023-07]
[4]
Kim JY, Choe PG, Oh Y, et al. The first case of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia imported into Korea from Wuhan, China: implication for infection prevention and control measures. J Korean Med Sci 2020; 35(5)e61
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e61] [PMID: 32030925]
[5]
Gralinski LE, Menachery VD. Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses 2020; 12(2)E135
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020135] [PMID: 31991541]
[6]
American Academy of Pediatrics; Coronaviruses, including SARS and MERS.Red Book®: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 31st ed. Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS, Eds. Itasca, IL: Am Acad Pediatr 2018; pp. 297-301..
[7]
World Health Organization (WHO); Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from 1 November 2002 to 31 July 2003 2003 https://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/table2004_04_21/en/.
[8]
Amawi H, Abu Deiab GI. A Aljabali AA, Dua K, Tambuwala MM. COVID-19 pandemic: an overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and potential vaccines and therapeutics. Ther Deliv 2020; 11(4): 245-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde-2020-0035] [PMID: 32397911]
[9]
Kannan S, Shaik Syed Ali P, Sheeza A, Hemalatha K. COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus 2019) - recent trends. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020; 24(4): 2006-11.
[PMID: 32141569]
[10]
Read JM, Bridgen JR, Cummings DA, et al. Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions medRxiv 2020; 01(23): 20018549.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.23.20018549]
[11]
Zhao Y, Zhao Z, Wang Y, et al. Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCov. bioRxiv 2020; 01(26)919985
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.26.919985]
[12]
Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses. Nat Microbiol 2020; 5(4): 562-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y] [PMID: 32094589]
[13]
Mahase E. China coronavirus: what do we know so far? BMJ 2020; 368: m308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m308] [PMID: 31980434]
[14]
Pratap Singh R, Javaid M, Haleem A, Vaishya R, Al S. Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) for orthopaedic in COVID-19 pandemic: Roles, challenges, and applications. J Clin Orthop Trauma 2020. 10.1016/j.jcot.2020.05.011. http://dx.doi: 10.1016/j.jcot.2020.05.011. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32425428; PMCID: PMC7227564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2020.05.011 PMID: 32425428 .
[15]
Brian DA, Baric RC. Coronavirus genome structure and replication Coronavirus replication and reverse genetics. Berlin, Germany: Springer 2005; pp. 1-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-26765-4_1]
[16]
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. China Novel Coronavirus investigating and research team. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(8): 727-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017] [PMID: 31978945]
[17]
Ren LL, Wang YM, Wu ZQ, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin Med J (Engl) 2020; 133(9): 1015-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000722] [PMID: 32004165]
[18]
Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 514-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9] [PMID: 31986261]
[19]
Gorbalenya A, Baker S, Baric R. Coronaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nat Microbiol 2020; 5(4): 536-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z] [PMID: 32123347]
[20]
World Health Organization (WHO). Novel coronavirus 2019. ncov) technical guidance: laboratory testing for 2019-ncov in humans 2020 www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/laboratory-guidance
[21]
Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, Whittaker GR. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses 2012; 4(6): 1011-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v4061011] [PMID: 22816037]
[22]
Park SE. Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19). Clin Exp Pediatr 2020; 63(4): 119-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.00493] [PMID: 32252141]
[23]
Letko M, Munster V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B β-coronaviruses, including 2019- nCoV. bioRxiv 2020; 01(22): 915660.2020.01.22.915660
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.22.915660] [PMID: 32511294]
[24]
Zhang H, Penninger JM, Li Y, Zhong N, Slutsky AS. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target. Intensive Care Med 2020; 46(4): 586-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05985-9] [PMID: 32125455]
[25]
To KK, Tsang OT, Chik-Yan Yip C, et al. Consistent detection of 2019 novel coronavirus in saliva. Clin Infect Dis 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa149] [PMID: 32047895]
[26]
Young BE, Ong SWX, Kalimuddin S, et al. Singapore 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak Research Team. Epidemiologic features and clinical course of patients infected with SARSCoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA 2020; 323(15): 1488-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.3204] [PMID: 32125362]
[27]
Singh RP, Javaid M, Haleem A, Suman R. Internet of things (IoT) applications to fight against COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14(4): 521-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.041] [PMID: 32388333]
[28]
Singh RP, Javaid M, Kataria R, Tyagi M, Haleem A, Suman R. Significant applications of virtual reality for COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14(4): 661-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.011] [PMID: 32438329]
[29]
Din MaU. Boppana LKT. An update on the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Am J Infect Control 2020; 48(6): 713.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.01.023]
[30]
Al Johani S, Hajeer AH. MERS-CoV diagnosis: An update. J Infect Public Health 2016; 9(3): 216-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.04.005] [PMID: 27106390]
[31]
World Health Organization (WHO). Director-General’s remarks at the media briefing on 2019. -nCoV on 11 February 2020 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/whodirector-general-s-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-2019-ncov-on-11-february-2020
[32]
Liu C, Zhou Q, Li Y, et al. Research and development on therapeutic agents and vaccines for COVID-19 and related human coronavirus diseases. ACS Cent Sci 2020; 6(3): 315-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00272] [PMID: 32226821]
[33]
Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(18): 1708-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032] [PMID: 32109013]
[34]
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel Coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(13): 1199-207.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316] [PMID: 31995857]
[35]
Lauer SA, Grantz KH, Bi Q, et al. The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: Estimation and application. Ann Intern Med 2020; 172(9): 577-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-0504] [PMID: 32150748]
[36]
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579(7798): 270-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7] [PMID: 32015507]
[37]
Tang X, Wu C, Li X, et al. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Natl Sci Rev 2020.
[38]
Cai J, Xu J, Lin D, et al. A Case Series of children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection: clinical and epidemiological features. Clin Infect Dis 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa198]
[39]
Cui Y, Tian M, Huang D, et al. A 55-day-old female infant infected with 2019 novel coronavirus disease: Presenting with pneumonia, liver injury, and heart damage. J Infect Dis 2020; 221(11): 1775-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa113] [PMID: 32179908]
[40]
Leung NH, Chu DK, Shiu EY, et al. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nat Med 2020.
[41]
Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, et al. Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from a symptomatic patient. JAMA 2020; 323(16): 1610-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.3227] [PMID: 32129805]
[42]
Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, et al. Features, Evaluation and treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19) StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing 2020.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554776/
[43]
Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, De Siati DR, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-tomoderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-L 2020; pp. 1-11.
[44]
Fan J, Liu X, Pan W, Douglas MW, Bao S. Epidemiology of Coronavirus disease in Gansu Province, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26(6): 1257-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200251] [PMID: 32168465]
[45]
Ghosh A, Gupta R, Misra A. Telemedicine for diabetes care in India during COVID19 pandemic and national lockdown period: Guidelines for physicians. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14(4): 273-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.001] [PMID: 32283497]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 1
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2020
Published on: 07 September, 2020
Page: [82 - 89]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200617161348
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 26
HTML: 1