Association between Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Author(s): Tooran Nayeri, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Zahra Hosseininejad, Afsaneh Amouei, Ahmad Daryani*

Journal Name: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders

Volume 21 , Issue 4 , 2021

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: The impact of infectious agents, such as Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), on human behavior and mental disorders, has recently attracted the attention of researchers. T. gondii has emerged as a suitable candidate for such disorders due to its neutral nature. Therefore, the current study aimed at investigating the possible relationship between T. gondii infection and headache.

Methods: Five databases were thoroughly searched (up to October 4, 2019) for articles on the prevalence of T. gondii in headache sufferers. In this study, the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using a random effect model and forest plot to gauge effect size and effect of each study.

Results: A total number of four articles, including one cross-sectional and three case-control studies 2517 participants, entered the meta-analysis, out of whom, 1205 subjects were afflicted with headache or migraine (17.67% positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1312 participants were not (18.29% for toxoplasmosis). The results of the meta-analysis indicated a common OR of 1.59 (95% CI: 1.03-2.47) by the random effect model.

Conclusion: The obtained results of several studies have linked toxoplasmosis and headache. Therefore, more quality studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the detailed association between headache and T. gondii infection for the prevention and control of toxoplasmosis among headache sufferers.

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis, headache, migraine, systematic review, meta-analysis.

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Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 17 June, 2020
Page: [643 - 650]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1871526520666200617135851
Price: $65

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