Modelling and Experimental Investigation of Luminous Coupling in UVLED Driven Optical Fiber Reactors

Author(s): Johannes Robert*, Thomas Jüstel, Roland Ulber, Volkmar Jordan

Journal Name: Journal of Photocatalysis

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Photocatalytic oxidation is a promising tool for waste water treatment and decomposition of biologically non digestible substances. Immersed nanoscale catalyst particles from semiconductor materials such as TiO2 and ZnO can be excited by absorbed UV radiation, leading to hydroxyl-ion formation at the surface of the semiconductor and oxidative degradation of pollutants.

Objective: This contribution deals with reactors equipped with catalyst coated light guides to combine the advantages of immobilized catalysts with nearly homogeneous irradiation. With experimental and theoretical methods the coupling and decoupling of radiation were investigated and the performance of catalyst coated light guides was tested by means of methylene-blue degradation.

Methods: Radiation models, known from the recent literature, use single ray, parallel ray or multi ray models to approximate the light transmission. These models neglect Fresnel reflection and consider only coupling into the light guide. In this study, the LED was simulated as a Lambertian radiator using 10 4 rays with angle dependent intensities. This well-known model was extended with Fresnelreflection, which predicted the measured coupling efficiencies accurately. The simulations predict the decoupling and catalyst activation at the lateral surface of the light guide for two boundary cases, ideal matt and ideal reflective surfaces. To generate matt surfaces, the light guides were either scratched or coated with TiO2 p25 nanopowder. Sol-gel coating methods were used, to create reflective surfaces.

Results: When using matt surfaces, the decoupling rate is very high: 80% of the radiant flux exits the light guide in less than 10 cm. If light guides with reflective surfaces are used, the radiant flux leaving the light guide is low: less than 10% of the radiation exited the light conductor in the first 10 cm. Methyleneblue degradation, seen as a model reaction, was used to determine the reactor performance by comparing the pseudo first order reaction coefficients. Due to the uniform light distribution along the length of the light guides and the resulting even formation of reactive radicals, the quantum yield was increased by a factor of 3, using sol-gel coated light guides, rather than powder coated light guides.

Conclusion: The effectiveness of LED driven optical fiber reactors was intensified, if reflective surfaces are used instead of matt surfaces. These surfaces are achieved by sol gel chemistry. However, to use the complete amount of photons, which entered the optical fiber, very long light guides are needed.

Keywords: Optical fiber reactor, waste water treatment, light guide, photocatalysis, photochemistry, lambertian.

Kabir, E.R.; Rahman, M.S.; Rahman, I. A review on endocrine disruptors and their possible impacts on human health. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2015, 40(1), 241-258.
[] [PMID: 26164742]
Schriewer, A.; Odagiri, M.; Wuertz, S.; Misra, P.R.; Panigrahi, P.; Clasen, T.; Jenkins, M.W. Human and animal fecal contamination of community water sources, stored drinking water and hands in rural india measured with validated microbial source tracking assays. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2015, 93(3), 509-516.
[] [PMID: 26149868]
Skariyachan, S.; Mahajanakatti, A.B.; Grandhi, N.J.; Prasanna, A.; Sen, B.; Sharma, N.; Vasist, K.S.; Narayanappa, R. Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India. Environ. Monit. Assess., 2015, 187(5), 279.
[] [PMID: 25896199]
Kostyla, C.; Bain, R.; Cronk, R.; Bartram, J. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review. Sci. Total Environ., 2015, 514, 333-343.
[] [PMID: 25676921]
Kundu, A.; Smith, W.A.; Harvey, D.; Wuertz, S. Drinking water safety: Role of hand hygiene, sanitation facility, and water system in semi-urban areas of India. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018, 99(4), 889-898.
[] [PMID: 30062991]
Heitzinger, K.; Rocha, C.A.; Quick, R.E.; Montano, S.M.; Tilley, D.H., Jr; Mock, C.N.; Carrasco, A.J.; Cabrera, R.M.; Hawes, S.E. “Improved” but not necessarily safe: an assessment of fecal contamination of household drinking water in rural Peru. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2015, 93(3), 501-508.
[] [PMID: 26195455]
Bain, R.; Cronk, R.; Wright, J.; Yang, H.; Slaymaker, T.; Bartram, J. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med., 2014, 11(5) e1001644
[] [PMID: 24800926]
Xu, H.; Li, Y.; Ding, M.; Chen, W.; Wang, K.; Lu, C. Engineered photocatalytic material membrane assemblies for removing nitrate from water. ACS Sustain. Chem.& Eng., 2018, 6, 7042-7051.
Snyder, S.A.; Westerhoff, P.; Yoon, Y.; Sedlak, D.L. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors in water: Implications for the water industry. Environ. Eng. Sci., 2003, 20, 449-469.
Välitalo, P.; Perkola, N.; Seiler, T-B.; Sillanpää, M.; Kuckelkorn, J.; Mikola, A.; Hollert, H.; Schultz, E. Estrogenic activity in Finnish municipal wastewater effluents. Water Res., 2016, 88, 740-749.
[] [PMID: 26584345]
Patrolecco, L.; Capri, S.; Ademollo, N. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in the principal sewage treatment plants in Rome (Italy) and in the receiving surface waters. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int., 2015, 22(8), 5864-5876.
[] [PMID: 25352396]
Purdom, C.E.; Hardiman, P.A.; Bye, V.V.J.; Eno, N.C.; Tyler, C.R.; Sumpter, J.P. Estrogenic effects of effluents from sewage treatment works. Chem. Ecol., 1994, 8, 275-285.
Kidd, K.A.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Mills, K.H.; Palace, V.P.; Evans, R.E.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Flick, R.W. Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2007, 104(21), 8897-8901.
[] [PMID: 17517636]
Deegan, A.M.; Shaik, B.; Nolan, K.; Urell, K.; Oelgemöller, M.; Tobin, J.; Morrissey, A. Treatment options for wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical companies. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 8, 649-666.
Bonvin, F.; Jost, L.; Randin, L.; Bonvin, E.; Kohn, T. Super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) for efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent. Water Res., 2016, 90, 90-99.
[] [PMID: 26724443]
Altmann, J.; Rehfeld, D.; Träder, K.; Sperlich, A.; Jekel, M. Combination of granular activated carbon adsorption and deep-bed filtration as a single advanced wastewater treatment step for organic micropollutant and phosphorus removal. Water Res., 2016, 92, 131-139.
[] [PMID: 26849316]
Mailler, R.; Gasperi, J.; Coquet, Y.; Derome, C.; Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E.; Bressy, A.; Varrault, G.; Chebbo, G.; Rocher, V. Removal of emerging micropollutants from wastewater by activated carbon adsorption: Experimental study of different activated carbons and factors influencing the adsorption of micropollutants in wastewater. J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2016, 4, 1102-1109.
Mailler, R.; Gasperi, J.; Coquet, Y. BuletÃl, A.; Vulliet, E.; Deshayes, S.; Zedek, S.; Mirande-Bret, C.; Eudes, V.; Bressy, A.; Caupos, E.; Moilleron, R.; Chebbo, G.; Rocher, V.. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale. Sci. Total Environ., 2016, 542(Pt A), 983-996.
[] [PMID: 26571333]
Snyder, S.A.; Adham, S.; Redding, A.M.; Cannon, F.S.; DeCarolis, J.; Oppenheimer, J.; Wert, E.C.; Yoon, Y. Role of membranes and activated carbon in the removal of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals. Desalination, 2007, 202, 156-181. [Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse for Sustainability.]
Watkinson, A.J.; Murby, E.J.; Costanzo, S.D. Removal of antibiotics in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment: implications for environmental discharge and wastewater recycling. Water Res., 2007, 41(18), 4164-4176.
[] [PMID: 17524445]
Xu, P.; Drewes, J.E.; Bellona, C.; Amy, G.; Kim, T-U.; Adam, M.; Heberer, T. Rejection of emerging organic micropollutants in nanofiltration-reverse osmosis membrane applications. Water Environ. Res., 2005, 77(1), 40-48.
[] [PMID: 15765934]
Kim, S.; Chu, K.H.; Al-Hamadani, Y.A.; Park, C.M.; Jang, M.; Kim, D-H.; Yu, M.; Heo, J.; Yoon, Y. Removal of contaminants of emerging concern by membranes in water and wastewater: A review. Chem. Eng. J., 2018, 335, 896-914.
Clara, M.; Strenn, B.; Gans, O.; Martinez, E.; Kreuzinger, N.; Kroiss, H. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants. Water Res., 2005, 39(19), 4797-4807.
[] [PMID: 16242170]
Yao, L.; Zhang, L.; Wang, R.; Chou, S.; Dong, Z. A new integrated approach for dye removal from wastewater by polyoxometalates functionalized membranes. J. Hazard. Mater., 2016, 301, 462-470.
[] [PMID: 26410275]
Noutsopoulos, C.; Koumaki, E.; Mamais, D.; Nika, M-C.; Bletsou, A.A.; Thomaidis, N.S. Removal of endocrine disruptors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through wastewater chlorination: the effect of pH, total suspended solids and humic acids and identification of degradation by-products. Chemosphere, 2015, 119(Suppl.), S109-S114. [Emerging Pollutants.]
[] [PMID: 24927696]
Peill, N.J.; Hoffmann, M.R. Mathematical model of a photocatalytic fiber-optic cable reactor for heterogeneous photocatalysis. Environ. Sci. Technol., 1998, 32, 398-404.
Peill, N.J.; Hoffmann, M.R. Chemical and physical characterization of a TiO2-coated fiber optic cable reactor. Environ. Sci. Technol., 1996, 30, 2806-2812.
Ling, L.; Tugaoen, H.; Brame, J.; Sinha, S.; Li, C.; Schoepf, J.; Hristovski, K.; Kim, J.H.; Shang, C.; Westerhoff, P. coupling light emitting diodes with photocatalyst-coated optical fibers improves 60 Journal of Photocatalysis, 2020, Vol. 1, No. 1 Robert et al. quantum yield of pollutant oxidation. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2017, 51(22), 13319-13326.
[] [PMID: 29028332]
O’Neal Tugaoen, H.; Garcia-Segura, S.; Hristovski, K.; Westerhoff, P. Compact light-emitting diode optical fiber immobilized TiO2 reactor for photocatalytic water treatment. Sci. Total Environ., 2018, 613-614, 1331-1338.
[]] [PMID: 28968936]
Hou, W-M.; Ku, Y. Photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous isopropanol in a tubular optical fiber reactor under periodic UV-LED illumination. J. Mol. Catal. Chem., 2013, 374-375, 7-11.
Spigulis, J.; Pfafrods, D.; Stafeckis, M.; Jelinska-Platace, W. Glowing optical fiber designs and parameters. SPIE Proc, 1997, p. 2967.
Wang, W.; Ku, Y. The light transmission and distribution in an optical fiber coated with TiO2 particles. Chemosphere, 2003, 50(8), 999-1006.
[] [PMID: 12531705]
Brueggemann, D. Entwicklung und Aufbau eines medizinischen Videoendoskops mit integrierten LED-Lichtquellen., Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universitaet Berlin. 2016.
Wetchakun, N.; Phanichphant, S. Effect of temperature on the degree of anatase and rutile transformation in titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by the modified sol-gel method. Current Applied Physics,, 2008, 8, pp. 343-346. AMN-3 (Third International Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology).
Wetchakun, N.; Incessungvorn, B.; Wetchakun, K.; Phanichphant, S. Influence of calcination temperature on anatase to rutile phase transformation in TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by the modified solâASgel method. Mater. Lett., 2012, 82, 195-198.
Padmanabhan, S.C.; Pillai, S.C.; Colreavy, J.; Balakrishnan, S.; McCormack, D.E.; Perova, T.S. Hinder, S. J.; Kelly, J.M. A Simple sol-gel processing for the development of high-temperature stable photoactive anatase titania. Chem. Mater., 2007, 19, 4474-4481.
Kim, D.J.; Hahn, S.H.; Oh, S.H.; Kim, E.J. Influence of calcination temperature on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared by sol--gel dip coating. Mater. Lett., 2002, 57, 355-360.
Ohko, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Fujishima, A. Kinetics of Photocatalytic Reactions under Extremely Low-Intensity UV Illumination on Titanium Dioxide Thin Films. J. Phys. Chem. A, 1997, 101, 8057-8062.
Houas, A.; Lachheb, H.; Ksibi, M.; Elaloui, E.; Guillard, C.; Herrmann, J-M. Photocatalytic degradation pathway of methylene blue in water. Appl. Catal. B, 2001, 31, 145-157.
Zhang, T.; Oyama, T.; Aoshima, A.; Hidaka, H.; Zhao, J.; Serpone, N. Photooxidative N-demethylation of methylene blue in aqueous TiO2 dispersions under UV irradiation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem., 2001, 140, 163-172.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 17 June, 2020
Page: [50 - 60]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/2665976X01999200617112504

Article Metrics

PDF: 18