Potential Novel Benefits of Sodium Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Rodolfo Valtuille*

Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews

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Chronic kidney disease is a global public health issue, and it has been considered as the epidemic of the 21st century. Therefore, all initiatives addressed to slow the evolution and complications of this condition should be well received. While the effects of salt reduction on cardiovascular disease have some controversial issues, in chronic kidney disease, such a policy is beneficial in multiple aspects. In chronic kidney disease patients, dietary sodium restriction is regularly recommended to control extracellular fluid expansion, hypertension and cardiovascular risk. Instead, the effects of sodium reduction on chronic kidney disease progression are still controversial. In the last years, potentially beneficial effects of a low sodium diet on chronic kidney disease evolution have emerged. Firstly, recent magnetic resonance-based findings of increased Na depots in skin and muscle associated with renal function, ageing and sodium intake open a vast body of investigation as a potential tool for monitoring effects of sodium restriction. In this narrative review, we also discussed novel aspects of sodium restriction in chronic kidney disease to manage metabolic acidosis as well as renal effects on fibroblast growth factor 23 or gut microbiota. Beyond current evidence, these approaches showed that common findings of kidney failure environment such as sodium -sensitivity, micro-inflammation, arterial stiffness metabolic acidosis and sarcopenia could be delayed controlling dietary sodium. Additional studies are now needed in populations with chronic kidney disease to confirm these new findings, addressed to slow the evolution and complications of this condition.

Keywords: Sodium, salt, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular, blood pressure, fibroblast growth factor 23, metabolic acidosis, gut microbiota

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Article Details

(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573402116666200615152139
Price: $95

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