NeuroAIDS, a disease incorporating both infectious and neurodegenerative pathways, is
still a formidable challenge for the researchers to deal with. The primary concern for the treatment of
neuroAIDS still remains the inaccessibility of the viral reservoir, making it indispensable for novel
techniques to be continuously innovated. Since the brain serves as a reservoir for viral replication, it is
pragmatic and a prerequisite to overcome the related barriers in order to improve the drug delivery to
the brain. The current treatment ideology is based on the combinatorial approach of a mocktail of antiretroviral
drugs. However, complete eradication of the disease could not be achieved. Thereby the
arena of gene-based cellular delivery is trending and has created a niche for itself in the present scenario.
To establish the supremacy of gene delivery, it is advisable to have a better understanding of the
molecular mechanism involved in the due process. The mechanism associated with the activity of the
anti-HIV gene lies in their intrinsic property to impart resistance to the HIV infection by targeting the
viral entry channels. This review principally emphasizes on different types of gene therapies explored
so far for the management of AIDS and its associated neurological conditions. Therefore it could
rightly be said that we are at the crossroad where the need of the hour is to develop novel strategies for
curbing AIDS and its associated neurological conditions.