Noise exposure (NE) has been recognized as one of the causes of sensorineural hearing loss
(SNHL), which can bring about irreversible damage to sensory hair cells in the cochlea, through the
launch of oxidative stress pathways and inflammation. Accordingly, determining the molecular mechanism
involved in regulating hair cell apoptosis via NE is essential to prevent hair cell damage. However,
the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the degeneration of sensory cells of the cochlea during NE
has not been so far uncovered. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to demonstrate the regulatory
role of miRNAs in the oxidative stress pathway and inflammation induced by NE. In this respect, articles
related to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), oxidative stress, inflammation, and miRNA from
various databases of Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed; Library,
Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA), and Web of Science were searched and retrieved.
The findings revealed that several studies had suggested that up-regulation of miR-1229-5p,
miR-451a, 185-5p, 186 and down-regulation of miRNA-96/182/183 and miR-30b were involved in
oxidative stress and inflammation which could be used as biomarkers for NIHL. There was also a
close relationship between NIHL and miRNAs, but further research is required to prove a causal association
between miRNA alterations and NE, and also to determine miRNAs as biomarkers indicating
responses to NE.