Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative comparative study was to examine the possible
relationship between nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and cardiac disorder risk by comparing
the rates of cardiac disorder risk of NRT with cardiac disorder risk of non-replacement drugs among
smokers seeking smoking cessation.
Methods: The study used retrospective quantitative design, which involved the collection of secondary
data from the adverse event reporting system (FAERS) database of the U.S Food and Drug
Administration (FDA). Rates of cardiac disorder were compared between the NRT group and non-
NRT (varenicline and bupropion) group. Statistical analyses involved using a 2x2 contingency table
and logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (reporting odds ratio (ROR)).
Results and Discussion: Unadjusted ROR was 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28, 0.70). With
age and sex as confounding factors, the smokers in the NRT group still had lower odds of having
cardiac disorder risk than the non-NRT group (adjusted ROR=0.44, 95% CI 0.28, 0.70).
Conclusion: Our study findings showed lower cardiac disorder risk with the NRT group compared
to the non-NRT (varenicline and bupropion) group. While the study did not aim to undermine either
using NRT or non-NRT for smoking cessation therapy to prevent smoking illness, the study results
offer informed findings that could potentially improve current smoking cessation management using
NRT intervention among smokers and enhance smokers’ health outcome. Despite the negative signal
detection of cardiac disorder risk with NRT as compared to non-NRT in final findings, we still
recommend further research on the causal relationship between NRT and non-NRT and cardiac disorder