Novel Therapeutic Approaches and Targets for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis

Author(s): Leonardo Pescitelli, Elia Rosi, Federica Ricceri, Nicola Pimpinelli, Francesca Prignano*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 22 , Issue 1 , 2021


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Atopic Dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases, with an estimated prevalence of 2.1-4.9% in adults.

Recently, advances in Atopic Dermatitis understanding have highlighted the role of inappropriate Th2 cell activation as principally involved in its pathogenesis. Other immune pathways seem to play a key role in the complex Atopic Dermatitis pathophysiology.

The anti-IL-4/IL-13 was the first monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in adult patients whose disease is resistant to other therapies.

Following its interesting results in terms of efficacy and safety, new therapies are in development.

Methods: Monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-31 and TSLP are currently under investigation on patients with moderate to severe Atopic Dermatitis patients. Moreover, small molecules like anti-PDE4 and JAK inhibitors may also represent other treatment possibilities.

Results: In this section, we present data available on the efficacy and safety of newer molecules for the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis.

Conclusion: The extreme clinical heterogeneity and the chronic progression of Atopic Dermatitis need for newer, safer and more effective treatments, able to control the disease and to improve the quality of life of affected patients. Dupilumab, and the other monoclonal antibodies and small molecules currently under investigation aim to improve the clinical management of Atopic Dermatitis.

Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, new treatment, dupilumab, lebrikizumab, tralokinumab, nemolizumab, tezepelumab, fezakinumab, small molecules.

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