Background: The best way to lose body weight, without using drugs and/or suffering hunger
and stress, has not yet been defined. The present study tested a low carbohydrate diet, enriched
with proteins, in subjects with overweight and obesity.
Methods: The study enrolled 22 uncomplicated overweight and obese subjects. Several parameters
were examined before and after 6 weeks of a low-carbohydrate diet, enriched with 18 g of whey proteins.
Anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference) variables, fasting hormones (insulin,
TSH, FT3, FT4), and metabolic (glucose, prealbumin, and lipid levels) parameters were measured. 25-
OH-vitamin D (25 (OH) D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and osteocalcin, were also quantified. Body
composition parameters (fat mass, fat-free mass, body cell mass, total body water) were measured by
electrical bioimpedance analysis. As cardiovascular parameters, blood pressure, endothelium flowmediated
dilation (FMD), and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were also measured.
Results: The low-carbohydrate diet integrated with proteins induced a significant decrease in body
weight (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P < 0.001), fat mass (P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P <
0.01), triglycerides (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), pre-albumin (P < 0.001), insulin (P <
0.001), HOMAIR (P < 0.001), FT3 (P < 0.05), and c-IMT (P < 0.001), and a significant increase in
FMD (P < 0.001) and 25 (OH) D (P < 0.001) was also observed.
Conclusion: All these results suggest that a short-term non-prescriptive low carbohydrate diet, enriched
with whey proteins, may be a good way to start losing fat mass and increase health.