Characterization of Bacteriological Isolates from Patients and Environment Samples of Burn Ward: A Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital of India

Author(s): Shiwani Sharma*, Priya Datta, Varsha Gupta, Pooja Kumari, Gursimran Kaur, Jagdish Chander

Journal Name: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders

Volume 21 , Issue 2 , 2021

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


Objective: Source of infection in a burn patient is from the patient’s flora, contaminated environmental surfaces and transmitted from health care workers. Insufficiently disinfected hospital environmental surface provides a niche for multidrug resistant bacteria. This study was carried out to assess the bacteriological profile of the pathogens from burn wounds and the surrounding environmental areas.

Methods: During 6 months, wound swabs from burn patients were collected on admission (after 48 hours of admission), on day 5 and then weekly. Environmental samples were also collected from burn ward and studied for the bacteriological and anti-microgram profiles.

Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii were the major bacterial isolates from the wound swabs and the environmental samples. ESBL was detected in 56.6% of our Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The environmental sites from which these bacterial isolates were found were nursing counter, sink, dressing trolley, medicine locker and patient’s bed. The percentage of MRSA decreased from 50 to 5% and there was an increased role of Enterococci species causing infections (13.63%).

Conclusion: In this study, there appears that the colonizers of the environment may play a role in the causation of infection in burn patients. In burns ward, rigorous implementation of infection control program should be warranted, which includes and hygiene and use of personal protective equipment, environmental disinfection, cohort nursing care and antibiotics stewardship programme.

Keywords: Burn, wound, infection, environmental contamination, infection, control, bacteriological isolates.

Church, D.; Elsayed, S.; Reid, O.; Winston, B.; Lindsay, R. Burn wound infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 2006, 19(2), 403-434.
[] [PMID: 16614255]
Altoparlak, U.; Erol, S.; Akcay, M.N.; Celebi, F.; Kadanali, A. The time-related changes of antimicrobial resistance patterns and predominant bacterial profiles of burn wounds and body flora of burned patients. Burns, 2004, 30(7), 660-664.
[] [PMID: 15475138]
Alexander, J.W. Mechanism of immunologic suppression in burn injury. J. Trauma, 1990, 30(12)(Suppl.), S70-S75.
[] [PMID: 2254995]
Essayagh, T.; Zohoun, A.; Tourabi, K.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Boumaarouf, A.; Ihrai, H.; Elhamzaoui, S. Burn unit: colonization of burn wounds and local environment. Ulus. Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg., 2012, 18(4), 296-300.
[] [PMID: 23138994]
Collee, J.G.; Miles, R.S.; Watt, B. Tests for the identification of bacteria.Mackie & MacCartney practical medical microbiology, 14th ed; Collee, J.G.; Fraser, A.G.; Marmion, B.P.; Simmons, A., Eds.; Churchill Livingstone: London, 1996, pp. 151-179.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty First Informational Supplement M100-S21; CLSI: Wayne, PA, USA, 2016.
Poulou, A.; Grivakou, E.; Vrioni, G.; Koumaki, V.; Pittaras, T.; Pournaras, S.; Tsakris, A. Modified CLSI extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) confirmatory test for phenotypic detection of ESBLs among Enterobacteriaceae producing various β-lactamases. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2014, 52(5), 1483-1489.
[] [PMID: 24574283]
Mohapatra, S.; Deb, M.; Agrawal, K.; Chopra, S.; Gaind, R. Bacteriological profile of patients and environmental samples in burn intensive care unit: A pilot study from a tertiary care hospital. Ind J Burn, 2014, 22(1), 62-64.
Kulkarni, V.; Arali, S.M.; Jayaraj, Y.M.; Shivannavar, T.C.; Joshi, M.R. Bacterial etiology and their antibiogram in burn wound infections at Kalaburgi region (India). Ind J Burn, 2015, 23(1), 65-70.
Gupta, V.; Garg, R.; Manpreet, K.; Garg, S.; Attri, A.K.; Chander, J. Prevalent resistance mechanisms in isolates from patients with burn wounds. Ind J Burn, 2015, 23(1), 65-70.
Das, R.; Sebastian, S.; Kapil, A.; Dhawan, B. Decline of Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in an Indian Tertiary Hospital: Hope for the Future. J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 2017, 11(8), DL01-DL02.
[] [PMID: 28969128]
Davane, M. Suyawanshi,Pichare A, Nagoba B. Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospital environment. JMicrobiol Infect Dis, 2014, 4(1), 42-43.
Dancer, S.J. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. J. Hosp. Infect., 2009, 73(4), 378-385.
[] [PMID: 19726106]
Podschun, R.; Ullmann, U. Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 1998, 11(4), 589-603.
[] [PMID: 9767057]
Gad, G.F.; EI-Domany, R.A.; Zaki, S.; Ashour, H.M. Characteriza¬tion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Minia, Egypt: prevalence, antibiogram and resistance mechanisms. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 2007, 60, 1010-1017.
[] [PMID: 17906321]
Coban, Y.K. Infection control in severely burned patients. World J. Crit. Care Med., 2012, 1(4), 94-101.
[] [PMID: 24701406]

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 09 June, 2020
Page: [238 - 242]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1871526520666200609120659
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 26