The immune system plays an important role in the prevention of infection and forms the
first line of defense against pathogen attack. Delivering of antigen through mucosal route may elicit
mucosal immune system as the mucosal surface is the most common site of pathogen entry. Mucosal
immune system will be capable to counter pathogen at mucosal surface. Oral mucosal immunization
opens the ways to deliver antigens at gut-associated lymphoid tissue. This can elicit both local and
systemic immune response. Mucosal vaccines are economical, highly accessible, non parenteral delivery
and capacity to produce mass immunization at the time of pandemics. To deliver antigens on the
mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system relies on specialized epithelial cell
i.e. Microfold (M)-cell. An approach to exploit the targeting specific receptors on M-cell for entry of
antigens has made a breakthrough in vaccine development. In this review, various strategies have been
discussed for the possible entry of antigens through M-cells and an approach to increase the uptake
and efficacy of vaccines for oral mucosal immunization.
Keywords: Oral mucosal immunization, M cell, gut-associated lymphoid tissues, Peyer’s patches, MALT, gastrointestinal.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport