Nanotechnology has come a long way showing major contributions in the field of agriculture
and food production. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing day by day as they possess
better solubility, enhanced magnetic and optical properties, and better surface to charge ratio.
The affirmative effects due to the use of NPs have been explained, including enhanced germination,
increased root and shoot length, and the overall increase in plant biomass along with improvement
in physiological parameters like photosynthetic activity. Recently, the toxicological effects of NPs
in agriculture have become a matter of concern. The current review focuses on the generation of reactive
oxygen species (ROS), oxidative damage and defense mechanism in response to phytotoxicity
caused by the use of NPs. The other aspects in this review include the effect of NPs on macromolecule
concentration, plant hormones and crop quality. The review also discusses the future prospects
of NPs on plant phytotoxicity and growth. Furthermore, it also discusses the possible
measures which can be taken for plant protection and growth while using NPs in agriculture.