Aging Liver: Can Exercise be a Better Way to Delay the Process than Nutritional and Pharmacological Intervention? Focus on Lipid Metabolism

Author(s): Hao Su*, Dongsen Liu, Jia Shao, Yinuo Li, Xiaoxia Wang*, Qi Gao*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 39 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


Background & Aims: Nowadays, the world is facing a common problem that the population aging process is accelerating. How to delay metabolic disorders in middle-aged and elderly people, has become a hot scientific and social issue worthy of attention. The liver plays an important role in lipid metabolism, and abnormal lipid metabolism may lead to liver diseases. Exercise is an easily controlled and implemented intervention, which has attracted extensive attention in improving the health of liver lipid metabolism in the elderly. This article reviewed the body aging process, changes of lipid metabolism in the aging liver, and the mechanism and effects of different interventions on lipid metabolism in the aging liver, especially focusing on exercise intervention.

Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed-NCBI, EBSCO Host and Web of Science, and also a report from WHO. In total, 143 studies were included from 1986 to 15 February 2020.

Conclusion: Nutritional and pharmacological interventions can improve liver disorders, and nutritional interventions are less risky relatively. Exercise intervention can prevent and improve age-related liver disease, especially the best high-intensity interval training intensity and duration is expected to be one of the research directions in the future.

Keywords: Liver, aging, lipid metabolism, aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, high-intensity interval training.

John B, Alana O, Andrew C, Eds. World report on ageing and health monograph on the internet. Geneva: World Health Organization 2015.
Inglis JE, Reilly W, Kelly OJ, Ilich JZ. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake. J Endocrinol 2017; 234(1): R37-51. 10.1530/JOE-16-0603 28442508
Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Kim Y, Spicer MT. Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2014; 65(2): 139-48. 10.2478/10004-1254-65-2014-2541 24945416
Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Inglis JE. Osteosarcopenic Obesity Syndrome: What Is It and How Can It Be Identified and Diagnosed? Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res 2016; •••20167325973 10.1155/2016/7325973 27667996
Jeon EY, Choi YH. J Korean Acad Nurs 2010; 40(3): 400-10. [Factors affecting the health-related quality of life according to age in vulnerable aged men 10.4040/jkan.2010.40.3.400 20634631
Collaborators GRF. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2016; 388(10053): 1659-724. 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8 27733284
Inglis JE, Kelly OJ, Ilich JZ. Osteosarcopenic obesity in women: impact, prevalence, and management challenges. Int J Womens Health 2017; 9: 33-42. 10.2147/IJWH.S106107 28144165
Kalyani RR, Corriere M, Ferrucci L. Age-related and disease-related muscle loss: the effect of diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2014; 2(10): 819-29. 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70034-8 24731660
Riggs BL, Melton LJ III, O’Fallon WM. Drug therapy for vertebral fractures in osteoporosis: evidence that decreases in bone turnover and increases in bone mass both determine antifracture efficacy. Bone 1996; 18(3)(Suppl.): 197S-201S. 10.1016/8756-3282(95)00502-1 8777088
Hunter GR, Gower BA, Kane BL. Age Related Shift in Visceral Fat. Int J Body Compos Res 2010; 8(3): 103-8.
Schmucker DL. Age-related changes in liver structure and function: Implications for disease? Exp Gerontol 2005; 40(8-9): 650-9. 10.1016/j.exger.2005.06.009 16102930
Wynne HA, Cope LH, Mutch E, Rawlins MD, Woodhouse KW, James OF. The effect of age upon liver volume and apparent liver blood flow in healthy man. Hepatology 1989; 9(2): 297-301. 10.1002/hep.1840090222 2643548
Tajiri K, Shimizu Y. Liver physiology and liver diseases in the elderly. World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19(46): 8459-67. 10.3748/wjg.v19.i46.8459 24379563
Honma T, Yanaka M, Tsuduki T, Ikeda I. Increased lipid accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue in aging in the SAMP10 mouse. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2011; 57(2): 123-9. 10.3177/jnsv.57.123 21697630
Bertolotti M, Lonardo A, Mussi C, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and aging: epidemiology to management. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20(39): 14185-204. 10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14185 25339806
Wong RJ, Aguilar M, Cheung R, et al. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is the second leading etiology of liver disease among adults awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. Gastroenterology 2015; 148(3): 547-55. 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.11.039 25461851
Paschos P, Paletas K. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. Hippokratia 2009; 13(1): 9-19.
Chen SH, Van Tuinen P, Ledbetter DH, Smith LC, Chan L. Human liver fatty acid binding protein gene is located on chromosome 2. Somat Cell Mol Genet 1986; 12(3): 303-6. 10.1007/BF01570790 3012800
Goldberger AL, Peng CK, Lipsitz LA. What is physiologic complexity and how does it change with aging and disease? Neurobiol Aging 2002; 23(1): 23-6. 10.1016/S0197-4580(01)00266-4 11755014
Kaplan DT, Furman MI, Pincus SM, Ryan SM, Lipsitz LA, Goldberger AL. Aging and the complexity of cardiovascular dynamics. Biophys J 1991; 59(4): 945-9. 10.1016/S0006-3495(91)82309-8 2065195
Terrier P, Dériaz O. Kinematic variability, fractal dynamics and local dynamic stability of treadmill walking. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2011; 8: 12. 10.1186/1743-0003-8-12 21345241
Schumann AY, Bartsch RP, Penzel T, Ivanov PCh, Kantelhardt JW. Aging effects on cardiac and respiratory dynamics in healthy subjects across sleep stages. Sleep 2010; 33(7): 943-55. 10.1093/sleep/33.7.943 20614854
Azemin MZ, Kumar DK, Wong TY, et al. Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel. Neurobiol Aging 2012; 33(1): 194.e1-4. 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.04.010 20472327
López-Otín C, Blasco MA, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemer G. The hallmarks of aging. Cell 2013; 153(6): 1194-217. 10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.039 23746838
Goldsmith TC. On the programmed/non-programmed aging controversy. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2012; 77(7): 729-32. 10.1134/S000629791207005X 22817536
Harman D. The aging process. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981; 78(11): 7124-8. 10.1073/pnas.78.11.7124 6947277
De Loof A, De Haes W, Boerjan B, Schoofs L. The Fading Electricity Theory of Ageing: the missing biophysical principle? Ageing Res Rev 2013; 12(1): 58-66. 10.1016/j.arr.2012.08.001 22940501
Yin D, Chen K. The essential mechanisms of aging: Irreparable damage accumulation of biochemical side-reactions. Exp Gerontol 2005; 40(6): 455-65. 10.1016/j.exger.2005.03.012 15935593
da Costa JP, Vitorino R, Silva GM, Vogel C, Duarte AC, Rocha-Santos T. A synopsis on aging-Theories, mechanisms and future prospects. Ageing Res Rev 2016; 29: 90-112. [ PMID: 27353257
Khan SS, Singer BD, Vaughan DE. Molecular and physiological manifestations and measurement of aging in humans. Aging Cell 2017; 16(4): 624-33. [ PMID: 28544158
Vaitkevicius PV, Fleg JL, Engel JH, et al. Effects of age and aerobic capacity on arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Circulation 1993; 88(4 Pt 1): 1456-62. [ PMID: 8403292
Davies CH, Ferrara N, Harding SE. Beta-adrenoceptor function changes with age of subject in myocytes from non-failing human ventricle. Cardiovasc Res 1996; 31(1): 152-6.
Wang JC, Bennett M. Aging and atherosclerosis: mechanisms, functional consequences, and potential therapeutics for cellular senescence. Circ Res 2012; 111(2): 245-59. [ PMID: 22773427
Fleg JL, Morrell CH, Bos AG, et al. Accelerated longitudinal decline of aerobic capacity in healthy older adults. Circulation 2005; 112(5): 674-82. [ PMID: 16043637
Gillooly M, Lamb D. Airspace size in lungs of lifelong non-smokers: effect of age and sex. Thorax 1993; 48(1): 39-43. [ PMID: 8434351
Xu X, Laird N, Dockery DW, Schouten JP, Rijcken B, Weiss ST. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141(6): 554-66. [ PMID: 7900723
Enright PL, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Schenker MB, Hyatt RE. Respiratory muscle strength in the elderly. Correlates and reference values. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 149(2 Pt 1): 430-8. [ PMID: 8306041
Nyengaard JR, Bendtsen TF. Glomerular number and size in relation to age, kidney weight, and body surface in normal man. Anat Rec 1992; 232(2): 194-201. [ PMID: 1546799
Weiskopf D, Weinberger B, Grubeck-Loebenstein B. The aging of the immune system. Transpl Int 2009; 22(11): 1041-50. [ PMID: 19624493
Jaiswal S, Fontanillas P, Flannick J, et al. Age-related clonal hematopoiesis associated with adverse outcomes. N Engl J Med 2014; 371(26): 2488-98. [ PMID: 25426837
Loerch PM, Lu T, Dakin KA, et al. Evolution of the aging brain transcriptome and synaptic regulation. PLoS One 2008; 3(10)e3329 [ PMID: 18830410
Delbono O. Expression and regulation of excitation-contraction coupling proteins in aging skeletal muscle. Curr Aging Sci 2011; 4(3): 248-59. [ PMID: 21529320
Elewa RM, Abdallah MA, Zouboulis CC. Age-associated skin changes in innate immunity markers reflect a complex interaction between aging mechanisms in the sebaceous gland. J Dermatol 2015; 42(5): 467-76. [ PMID: 25818897
Salvi SM, Akhtar S, Currie Z. Ageing changes in the eye. Postgrad Med J 2006; 82(971): 581-7. [ PMID: 16954455
Gates GA, Mills JH. Presbycusis. Lancet 2005; 366(9491): 1111-20. [ PMID: 16182900
Zoli M, Iervese T, Abbati S, Bianchi GP, Marchesini G, Pisi E. Portal blood velocity and flow in aging man. Gerontology 1989; 35(2-3): 61-5. [ PMID: 2792785
Sotaniemi EA, Arranto AJ, Pelkonen O, Pasanen M. Age and cytochrome P450-linked drug metabolism in humans: an analysis of 226 subjects with equal histopathologic conditions. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 61(3): 331-9. [ PMID: 9091249
Schmucker DL, Sachs H. Quantifying dense bodies and lipofuscin during aging: a morphologist’s perspective. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2002; 34(3): 249-61. [ PMID: 14764327
Schmucker DL, Sanchez H. Liver regeneration and aging: a current perspective. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res 2011; •••2011526379 [ PMID: 21912543
Ono Y, Kawachi S, Hayashida T, et al. The influence of donor age on liver regeneration and hepatic progenitor cell populations. Surgery 2011; 150(2): 154-61. [ PMID: 21719061
Iakova P, Awad SS, Timchenko NA. Aging reduces proliferative capacities of liver by switching pathways of C/EBPalpha growth arrest. Cell 2003; 113(4): 495-506. [ PMID: 12757710
Aravinthan A, Verma S, Coleman N, Davies S, Allison M, Alexander G. Vacuolation in hepatocyte nuclei is a marker of senescence. J Clin Pathol 2012; 65(6): 557-60. [ PMID: 22447919
Nakajima T, Nakashima T, Okada Y, et al. Nuclear size measurement is a simple method for the assessment of hepatocellular aging in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Comparison with telomere-specific quantitative FISH and p21 immunohistochemistry. Pathol Int 2010; 60(3): 175-83. [ PMID: 20403043
Abenavoli L, Peta V. Role of adipokines and cytokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2014; 9(3): 134-40. [ PMID: 25514909
Koehler EM, Schouten JN, Hansen BE, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the elderly: results from the Rotterdam study. J Hepatol 2012; 57(6): 1305-11. [ PMID: 22871499
Alkhouri N, Tamimi TA, Yerian L, Lopez R, Zein NN, Feldstein AE. The inflamed liver and atherosclerosis: a link between histologic severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased cardiovascular risk. Dig Dis Sci 2010; 55(9): 2644-50. [ PMID: 19960252
Gong Z, Tas E, Yakar S, Muzumdar R. Hepatic lipid metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in aging. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017; 455: 115-30. [ PMID: 28017785
Bazinet RP, Layé S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in brain function and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 2014; 15(12): 771-85. [ PMID: 25387473
Glatz JF, Luiken JJ, Bonen A. Membrane fatty acid transporters as regulators of lipid metabolism: implications for metabolic disease. Physiol Rev 2010; 90(1): 367-417. [ PMID: 20086080
Green CJ, Hodson L. The influence of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation. Nutrients 2014; 6(11): 5018-33. [ PMID: 25389901
Donnelly KL, Smith CI, Schwarzenberg SJ, Jessurun J, Boldt MD, Parks EJ. Sources of fatty acids stored in liver and secreted via lipoproteins in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Invest 2005; 115(5): 1343-51. [ PMID: 15864352
Vatner DF, Majumdar SK, Kumashiro N, et al. Insulin-independent regulation of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by fatty acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2015; 112(4): 1143-8. [ PMID: 25564660
Woudstra TD, Drozdowski LA, Wild GE, Clandinin MT, Agellon LB, Thomson AB. An isocaloric PUFA diet enhances lipid uptake and weight gain in aging rats. Lipids 2004; 39(4): 343-54. [ PMID: 15357022
Ferramosca A, Zara V. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20(7): 1746-55. [ PMID: 24587652
Woudstra TD, Drozdowski LA, Wild GE, Clandinin MT, Agellon LB, Thomson AB. The age-related decline in intestinal lipid uptake is associated with a reduced abundance of fatty acid-binding protein. Lipids 2004; 39(7): 603-10. [ PMID: 15588016
Nanji AA, Dannenberg AJ, Jokelainen K, Bass NM. Alcoholic liver injury in the rat is associated with reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-alpha (PPARalpha)-regulated genes and is ameliorated by PPARalpha activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 310(1): 417-24. [ PMID: 15016835
Lambert JE, Ramos-Roman MA, Browning JD, Parks EJ. Increased de novo lipogenesis is a distinct characteristic of individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2014; 146(3): 726-35. [ PMID: 24316260
Kawano Y, Cohen DE. Mechanisms of hepatic triglyceride accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Gastroenterol 2013; 48(4): 434-41. [ PMID: 23397118
Oosterveer MH, Schoonjans K. Hepatic glucose sensing and integrative pathways in the liver. Cell Mol Life Sci 2014; 71(8): 1453-67. [ PMID: 24196749
Chakravarthy MV, Pan Z, Zhu Y, et al. “New” hepatic fat activates PPARalpha to maintain glucose, lipid, and cholesterol homeostasis. Cell Metab 2005; 1(5): 309-22. [ PMID: 16054078
Mashek DG. Hepatic fatty acid trafficking: multiple forks in the road. Adv Nutr 2013; 4(6): 697-710. [ PMID: 24228201
Jogl G, Tong L. Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport. Cell 2003; 112(1): 113-22. [ PMID: 12526798
Jogl G, Hsiao YS, Tong L. Structure and function of carnitine acyltransferases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1033: 17-29. [ PMID: 15591000
Houtkooper RH, Argmann C, Houten SM, et al. The metabolic footprint of aging in mice. Sci Rep 2011; 1: 134. [ PMID: 22355651
Kim JY, Kim DH, Choi J, et al. Changes in lipid distribution during aging and its modulation by calorie restriction. Age (Dordr) 2009; 31(2): 127-42. [ PMID: 19277901
Kamagate A, Qu S, Perdomo G, et al. FoxO1 mediates insulin-dependent regulation of hepatic VLDL production in mice. J Clin Invest 2008; 118(6): 2347-64. [ PMID: 18497885
Sparks JD, Sparks CE, Adeli K. Selective hepatic insulin resistance, VLDL overproduction, and hypertriglyceridemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2012; 32(9): 2104-12. [ PMID: 22796579
Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Cohn SD, et al. Effects of age, gender, and menopausal status on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in the Framingham Offspring Study. J Lipid Res 1994; 35(5): 779-92.
Flannery C, Dufour S, Rabøl R, Shulman GI, Petersen KF. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance promotes increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis in the elderly. Diabetes 2012; 61(11): 2711-7. [ PMID: 22829450
Wu B, Xiao X, Li S, Zuo G. Transcriptomics and metabonomics of the anti-aging properties of total flavones of Epimedium in relation to lipid metabolism. J Ethnopharmacol 2019; 229: 73-80. [ PMID: 30278205
Zhou Y, Xu Q, Dong Y, Zhu S, Song S, Sun S. Supplementation of Mussel Peptides Reduces aging Phenotype, Lipid Deposition and Oxidative Stress in D-Galactose-Induce Aging Mice. J Nutr Health Aging 2017; 21(10): 1314-20. [ PMID: 29188895
Shin SS, Yoon M. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) inhibits obesity and improves lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed castrated mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2018; 210: 80-7. [ PMID: 28844680
Xu Z, Huo J, Ding X, et al. Coenzyme Q10 Improves Lipid Metabolism and Ameliorates Obesity by Regulating CaMKII-Mediated PDE4 Inhibition. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 8253. [ PMID: 28811612
Gimeno-Mallench L, Mas-Bargues C, Inglés M, et al. Resveratrol shifts energy metabolism to increase lipid oxidation in healthy old mice. Biomed Pharmacother 2019; •••118109130 [ PMID: 31306969
Aumailley L, Roux-Dalvai F, Kelly I, Droit A, Lebel M. Vitamin C alters the amount of specific endoplasmic reticulum associated proteins involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of mice synthesizing a nonfunctional Werner syndrome (Wrn) mutant protein. PLoS One 2018; 13(3)e0193170 [ PMID: 29494634
Gharibi S, Bakhtiari N. Elham-Moslemee-Jalalvand, Bakhtiari F. Ursolic Acid Mediates Hepatic Protection through Enhancing of anti-aging Biomarkers. Curr Aging Sci 2018; 11(1): 16-23. [ PMID: 28558631
Sahin K, Orhan C, Tuzcu M, et al. Tomato Powder Modulates NF-κB, mTOR, and Nrf2 Pathways during Aging in Healthy Rats. J Aging Res 2019; •••20191643243 [ PMID: 30719353
Corbi G, Conti V, Komici K, et al. Phenolic Plant Extracts Induce Sirt1 Activity and Increase Antioxidant Levels in the Rabbit’s Heart and Liver. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018; •••20182731289 [ PMID: 30116475
Li T, Chen S, Feng T, Dong J, Li Y, Li H. Rutin protects against aging-related metabolic dysfunction. Food Funct 2016; 7(2): 1147-54. [ PMID: 26804783
Arbo BD, Niches G, Zanini P, et al. Aging affects the response of female rats to a hypercaloric diet. Exp Gerontol 2018; 101: 7-12. [ PMID: 29133011
Gatineau E, Capel F, Dardevet D, et al. Effect of high chronic intake of sucrose on liver metabolism in aging rats. Modulation by rutin and micronutrients. J Physiol Biochem 2018; 74(4): 569-77. [ PMID: 29637446
Chun S, Bamba T, Suyama T, et al. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis. PLoS One 2016; 11(5)e0155386 [ PMID: 27187182
Zhou D, Hlady RA, Schafer MJ, et al. High fat diet and exercise lead to a disrupted and pathogenic DNA methylome in mouse liver. Epigenetics 2017; 12(1): 55-69. [ PMID: 27858497
Zhou J, Massey S, Story D, Li L. Metformin: An Old Drug with New Applications. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19(10): 2863-77. [ PMID: 30241400
Guo J, Zhou Y, Cheng Y, et al. Metformin-Induced Changes of the Coding Transcriptome and Non-Coding RNAs in the Livers of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mice. Cell Physiol Biochem 2018; 45(4): 1487-505. [ PMID: 29466788
Zhu X, Bian H, Gao X. The Potential Mechanisms of Berberine in the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Molecules 2016; 21(10)E1336 [ PMID: 27754444
Zhou D, Chen YW, Zhao ZH, et al. Sodium butyrate reduces high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through upregulation of hepatic GLP-1R expression. Exp Mol Med 2018; 50(12): 1-12. [ PMID: 30510243
Zhou D, Pan Q, Shen F, et al. Total fecal microbiota transplantation alleviates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice via beneficial regulation of gut microbiota. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 1529. [ PMID: 28484247
Liou CJ, Wei CH, Chen YL, Cheng CY, Wang CL, Huang WC. Fisetin Protects Against Hepatic Steatosis Through Regulation of the Sirt1/AMPK and Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Cell Physiol Biochem 2018; 49(5): 1870-84. [ PMID: 30235452
Nagappan A, Jung DY, Kim JH, et al. Alleviates Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury through Ameliorating Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19(9)E2601 [ PMID: 30200508
Armstrong MJ, Houlihan DD, Bentham L, et al. Presence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a large prospective primary care cohort. J Hepatol 2012; 56(1): 234-40. [ PMID: 21703178
Williams CD, Stengel J, Asike MI, et al. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis among a largely middle-aged population utilizing ultrasound and liver biopsy: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 2011; 140(1): 124-31. [ PMID: 20858492
Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Fiatarone Singh MA, et al. American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41(7): 1510-30. [ PMID: 19516148
Pedersen BK, Saltin B. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006; 16(Suppl. 1): 3-63. [ PMID: 16451303
van der Windt DJ, Sud V, Zhang H, Tsung A, Huang H. The Effects of Physical Exercise on Fatty Liver Disease. Gene Expr 2018; 18(2): 89-101. [ PMID: 29212576
Forbes SC, Little JP, Candow DG. Exercise and nutritional interventions for improving aging muscle health. Endocrine 2012; 42(1): 29-38. [ PMID: 22527891
Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ, et al. Lancet Physical Activity Series 2 Executive Committe; Lancet Sedentary Behaviour Working Group. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet 2016; 388(10051): 1302-10. [ PMID: 27475271
Bowden Davies KA, Sprung VS, Norman JA, et al. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time: Association with Metabolic Health and Liver Fat. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2019; 51(6): 1169-77. [ PMID: 30694971
Taniguchi H, Tanisawa K, Sun X, Kubo T, Higuchi M. Endurance Exercise Reduces Hepatic Fat Content and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Elderly Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016; 101(1): 191-8. [ PMID: 26562755
Fealy C E, Haus J M, Solomon T P, et al. 2012.
Kuhla A, Blei T, Jaster R, Vollmar B. Aging is associated with a shift of fatty metabolism toward lipogenesis. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66(11): 1192-200. [ PMID: 21835806
Finlay LA, Michels AJ, Butler JA, et al. R-α-lipoic acid does not reverse hepatic inflammation of aging, but lowers lipid anabolism, while accentuating circadian rhythm transcript profiles. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2012; 302(5): R587-97. [ PMID: 22049228
Garee JP, Oesterreich S. SAFB1's multiple functions in biological control-lots still to be done! J Cell Biochem 2010; 109(2): 312-9. [ PMID: 20014070
Li F, Li T, Liu Y. Proteomics-Based Identification of the Molecular Signatures of Liver Tissues from Aged Rats following Eight Weeks of Medium-Intensity Exercise. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016; •••20163269405 [ PMID: 28116034
da Luz G, Frederico MJ, da Silva S, et al. Endurance exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance and reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obese rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011; 111(9): 2015-23. [ PMID: 21249392
Alex S, Boss A, Heerschap A, Kersten S. Exercise training improves liver steatosis in mice. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2015; 12: 29. [ PMID: 26251667
Lee S, Deldin AR, White D, et al. Aerobic exercise but not resistance exercise reduces intrahepatic lipid content and visceral fat and improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2013; 305(10): E1222-9. [ PMID: 24045865
Shojaee-Moradie F, Cuthbertson DJ, Barrett M, et al. Exercise Training Reduces Liver Fat and Increases Rates of VLDL Clearance But Not VLDL Production in NAFLD. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016; 101(11): 4219-28. [ PMID: 27583475
Pugh CJ, Sprung VS, Jones H, et al. Exercise-induced improvements in liver fat and endothelial function are not sustained 12 months following cessation of exercise supervision in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Int J Obes 2016; 40(12): 1927-30. [ PMID: 27439593
Hallsworth K, Fattakhova G, Hollingsworth KG, et al. Resistance exercise reduces liver fat and its mediators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of weight loss. Gut 2011; 60(9): 1278-83. [ PMID: 21708823
Lemes IR, Ferreira PH, Linares SN, Machado AF, Pastre CM, Netto J. Resistance training reduces systolic blood pressure in metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med 2016; 50(23): 1438-42. [ PMID: 26964146
Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-Orians L, et al. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(12): 2335-41. [ PMID: 12453982
Ghamarchehreh ME, Shamsoddini A, Alavian SM. Investigating the impact of eight weeks of aerobic and resistance training on blood lipid profile in elderly with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized clinical trial. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019; 12(3): 190-6.
Zelber-Sagi S, Buch A, Yeshua H, et al. Effect of resistance training on non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease a randomized-clinical trial. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20(15): 4382-92. [ PMID: 24764677
Hashida R, Kawaguchi T, Bekki M, et al. Aerobic vs. resistance exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review. J Hepatol 2017; 66(1): 142-52. [ PMID: 27639843
Bowden Davies KA, Pickles S, Sprung VS, et al. Reduced physical activity in young and older adults: metabolic and musculoskeletal implications. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2019; •••102042018819888824 [ PMID: 31803464
Moore DR, Kelly RP, Devries MC, et al. Low-load resistance exercise during inactivity is associated with greater fibre area and satellite cell expression in older skeletal muscle. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2018; 9(4): 747-54. [ PMID: 29761654
Tarnopolsky M, Zimmer A, Paikin J, et al. Creatine monohydrate and conjugated linoleic acid improve strength and body composition following resistance exercise in older adults. PLoS One 2007; 2(10)e991 [ PMID: 17912368
Risérus U, Vessby B, Arnlöv J, Basu S. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80(2): 279-83. [ PMID: 15277146
Risérus U, Basu S, Jovinge S, Fredrikson GN, Arnlöv J, Vessby B. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-dependent oxidative stress and elevated C-reactive protein: a potential link to fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Circulation 2002; 106(15): 1925-9. [ PMID: 12370214
Parise G, Brose AN, Tarnopolsky MA. Resistance exercise training decreases oxidative damage to DNA and increases cytochrome oxidase activity in older adults. Exp Gerontol 2005; 40(3): 173-80. [ PMID: 15763394
Francois ME, Little JP. Effectiveness and safety of high-intensity interval training in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Spectr 2015; 28(1): 39-44. [ PMID: 25717277
Cho J, Kim S, Lee S, Kang H. Effect of Training Intensity on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2015; 47(8): 1624-34. [ PMID: 25539480
Hallsworth K, Thoma C, Hollingsworth KG, et al. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Sci (Lond) 2015; 129(12): 1097-105. [ PMID: 26265792
Cassidy S, Thoma C, Hallsworth K, et al. High intensity intermittent exercise improves cardiac structure and function and reduces liver fat in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia 2016; 59(1): 56-66. [ PMID: 26350611
Kalaki-Jouybari F, Shanaki M, Delfan M, Gorgani-Firouzjae S, Khakdan S. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) alleviated NAFLD feature via miR-122 induction in liver of high-fat high-fructose diet induced diabetic rats. Arch Physiol Biochem 2018; •••: 1-8. [ PMID: 30318957
Ceccarelli S, Panera N, Gnani D, Nobili V. Dual role of microRNAs in NAFLD. Int J Mol Sci 2013; 14(4): 8437-55. [ PMID: 23594995
Zhang Y, Cheng X, Lu Z, et al. Upregulation of miR-15b in NAFLD models and in the serum of patients with fatty liver disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013; 99(3): 327-34. [ PMID: 23287814
Aragno M, Tomasinelli CE, Vercellinatto I, et al. SREBP-1c in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by Western-type high-fat diet plus fructose in rats. Free Radic Biol Med 2009; 47(7): 1067-74. [ PMID: 19616615
Winn NC, Liu Y, Rector RS, Parks EJ, Ibdah JA, Kanaley JA. Energy-matched moderate and high intensity exercise training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk independent of changes in body mass or abdominal adiposity - A randomized trial. Metabolism 2018; 78: 128-40. [ PMID: 28941598
Wang N, Liu Y, Ma Y, Wen D. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice. Life Sci 2017; 191: 122-31. [ PMID: 28495843
Motta VF, Bargut TL, Aguila MB, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Treating fructose-induced metabolic changes in mice with high-intensity interval training: insights in the liver, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 2017; 123(4): 699-709.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 10 November, 2020
Page: [4982 - 4991]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200605111232
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 23
HTML: 11
PRC: 2