Background: Naringin (NAR) is a flavonoid enriched in several medicinal plants and fruits. An increasing interest in this molecule has been emerging because it has the potential to contribute to alleviating many health problems.
Objective: This review briefly describes the NAR pharmacokinetics and it mainly focus on in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing NAR beneficial effects on cardiovascular, metabolic, neurological and pulmonary disorders and cancer. The anabolic effects of NAR on different models of bone and dental diseases are also analyzed. In addition, the evidence of the
NAR action on the gastrointestinal tract is reported as well as its influence on the microbiota composition and activity. Finally, current research on NAR formulations and clinical applications are discussed.
Methods: The PubMed database was searched until 2019, using the keywords NAR, naringenin, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, neurological and pulmonary disorders, cancer, bone and dental diseases, gastrointestinal tract, microbiota,
NAR formulations, clinical trials.
Results: The number of studies related to the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of NAR is limited. Positive effects of
NAR have been reported on cardiovascular diseases, type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, pulmonary
disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and gastrointestinal pathologies. Current NAR formulations seem to improve
its bioavailability, which would allow its clinical application.
Conclusion: NAR is endowed with broad biological effects that could improve human health. Since a scarce number of
clinical studies have been performed, the use of them requires more investigation in order to know better their safety, efficacy, delivery and bioavailability in humans.