Background: Naringin (NAR) is a flavonoid enriched in several medicinal plants
and fruits. An increasing interest in this molecule has emerged because it has the potential to
contribute to alleviating many health problems.
Objective: This review briefly describes the NAR pharmacokinetics and it mainly focuses on
the in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing NAR beneficial effects on cardiovascular,
metabolic, neurological and pulmonary disorders and cancer. The anabolic effects of NAR on
different models of bone and dental diseases are also analyzed. In addition, the evidence of
the NAR action on the gastrointestinal tract is reported as well as its influence on the microbiota
composition and activity. Finally, current research on NAR formulations and clinical applications
Methods: The PubMed database was searched until 2019, using the keywords NAR, naringenin,
cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, neurological and pulmonary disorders, cancer,
bone and dental diseases, gastrointestinal tract, microbiota, NAR formulations, clinical trials.
Results: The number of studies related to the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of NAR is
limited. Positive effects of NAR have been reported on cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 Diabetes
Mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, pulmonary disorders, neurodegenerative diseases,
cancer, and gastrointestinal pathologies. The current NAR formulations seem to improve
its bioavailability, which would allow its clinical applications.
Conclusion: NAR is endowed with broad biological effects that could improve human health.
Since a scarce number of clinical studies have been performed, the NAR use requires more
investigation in order to know better their safety, efficacy, delivery, and bioavailability in