Introduction: The infiltration of HIV into the brain alters the functions of the nervous
system known as Neuro-AIDS. It leads to neuronal defects clinically manifested by motor and cognitive
Materials and Methods: Current antiretroviral therapy can prevent viral replication but cannot cure
the disease completely. HAART-Highly active antiretroviral therapy is used for the treatment of
HIV infection. Challenges in neuro-AIDS therapy are as shown in the graphical abstract. One of the
challenges is latent viral reservoirs like the brain; which act as a sanctuary site for viruses. Nearly
~50% of HIV patients show neuropathological signs. Nervous system related disorders, including
AIDS dementia, sensory neuropathy, and myelopathy have a 25% of prevalence in patients having
access to a highly active combination of antiretroviral therapy.
Results and Conclusions: Brain is one of the viral sanctuary sites for HIV. The current need of
neuro-AIDS therapy is to target the brain as a viral reservoir. Drugs should cross or bypass the
blood-brain barrier to reach the brain with effective concentrations. Current research on novel drug
delivery approaches may prove helpful in treating neuro-AIDS and related disorders effectively.