Neuro-AIDS: Current Status and Challenges to Antiretroviral Drug Therapy (ART) for Its Treatment

Author(s): Smita P. Kakad*, Sanjay J. Kshirsagar

Journal Name: Current Drug Therapy

Volume 15 , Issue 5 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Introduction: The infiltration of HIV into the brain alters the functions of the nervous system known as Neuro-AIDS. It leads to neuronal defects clinically manifested by motor and cognitive dysfunctions.

Materials and Methods: Current antiretroviral therapy can prevent viral replication but cannot cure the disease completely. HAART-Highly active antiretroviral therapy is used for the treatment of HIV infection. Challenges in neuro-AIDS therapy are as shown in the graphical abstract. One of the challenges is latent viral reservoirs like the brain; which act as a sanctuary site for viruses. Nearly ~50% of HIV patients show neuropathological signs. Nervous system related disorders, including AIDS dementia, sensory neuropathy, and myelopathy have a 25% of prevalence in patients having access to a highly active combination of antiretroviral therapy.

Results and Conclusions: Brain is one of the viral sanctuary sites for HIV. The current need of neuro-AIDS therapy is to target the brain as a viral reservoir. Drugs should cross or bypass the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain with effective concentrations. Current research on novel drug delivery approaches may prove helpful in treating neuro-AIDS and related disorders effectively.

Keywords: HIV, Neuro-AIDS, brain, current antiretroviral therapy, dementia, neuro-AIDS challenges.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2020
Published on: 22 January, 2021
Page: [469 - 481]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1574885515666200604123046
Price: $65

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