Background: The administration of many pharmaceutical active ingredients is often performed
by the injection of an aqueous-based solution. Numerous active ingredients are however, insoluble
in water, which complicates their administration and restricts their efficacy.
Objective: The current solutions are hindered by both, a time-consuming manufacturing process and
unsuitability for hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials.
Methods: Emulsions of oleophilic active ingredients and polyprotein microspheres are an important
step to overcome insolubility issues.
Results: Polyprotein microspheres offer a versatile modifiable morphology, thermal responsivity, and
size variation, which allows for the protection and release of assembled biomaterials. In addition, nanospheres
present promising cell phagocytosis outcomes in vivo.
Conclusion: In this research, a reproducible multifunctional approach, to assemble nanospheres in one
step, using a technique termed “automatic nanoscalar interfacial alternation in emulsion” (ANIAE) was
developed, incorporating a thermally controlled release mechanism for the assembled target active ingredients.
These results demonstrate a viable, universal, multifunctional principal for the pharmaceutical