It is well-known that stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability all over
the world. After a stroke, the blood-brain barrier subsequently breaks down. The BBB consists of
endothelial cells surrounded by astrocytes. Microglia, considered the long-living resident immune
cells of the brain, play a vital role in BBB function. M1 microglia worsen BBB disruption, while
M2 microglia assist in repairing BBB damage. Microglia can also directly interact with endothelial
cells and affect BBB permeability. In this review, we are going to discuss the mechanisms responsible
for the dual role of microglia in BBB dysfunction after stroke.
Keywords: Blood-brain barrier, stroke, microglia, polarization, inflammation, endothelial cells.
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