The Effect of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapies on Pancreatic β-cell Dysfunction: Results from in Vitro and in Vivo Studies

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Author(s): Ioanna A. Anastasiou, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Anastasios Tentolouris, Chrysi Koliaki, Ourania A. Kosta, Nikolaos Tentolouris*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

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Background: Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that hyperglycemiainduced oxidative stress plays an important role in pancreatic β-cells dysfunction and apoptosis as well as in the development and progression of diabetic complications. Considering the vulnerability of pancreatic β-cells to oxidative damage, induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes or exogenous antioxidant administration has been proposed to protect pancreatic β-cells from damage.

Objectives: The present review aims to provide evidence of the effect of oxidative stress and antioxidant therapies on pancreatic β-cell function, based on in vitro and in vivo studies.

Methods: The medline and embase databases were searched to retrieve available data.

Results: Due to poor endogenous antioxidant mechanisms pancreatic β-cells are extremely sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many natural extracts have been tested in vitro in pancreatic β-cell lines in terms of their antioxidant and diabetes mellitus ameliorating effects, and the majority of them have shown a dose-dependent protective role. On the other hand, there is relatively limited evidence regarding the in vitro antioxidant effects of antidiabetic drugs on pancreatic β-cells. About in vivo studies several natural extracts have shown beneficial effects in the setting of diabetes by decreasing blood glucose and lipid levels, increasing insulin sensitivity, and by up-regulating intrinsic antioxidant enzyme activity. However, there is limited evidence obtained from in vivo studies regarding antidiabetic drugs.

Conclusion: Antioxidants hold promise for developing strategies aimed at the prevention or treatment of diabetes mellitus associated with pancreatic β-cells dysfunction, as supported by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, more in vitro studies are required about drugs.

Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, pancreatic β-cells, reactive oxygen species, in vitro studies, in vivo studies.

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/0929867327666200526135642
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