Eugenol is a bioactive compound commonly found in many herbal plants. The different
reported sources of eugenol are clove, cinnamon, holy basil, and pepper. Several therapeutic activities
of eugenol like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic,
neuroprotective agent, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities have been reported. However, due to
limited aqueous solubility, it has poor bioavailability. Its therapeutic potential can be enhanced by
developing eugenol nano-formulations like liposome, nanoparticles, microemulsions and micelles.
This article extensively reviews the chemical and pharmacological properties of eugenol and its
nano-formulations along with their biological activities.