Susceptibility to Localized Corrosion of ASTM F745 and UNS S32750 Stainless Steels Influence of pH and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

Author(s): Ricardo W. Gregorutti*, Jorge E. Grau, Daniel Castrogiovanni, Julieta Parisi, Miguel Reigosa, Cecilia I. Elsner

Journal Name: Innovations in Corrosion and Materials Science (Discontinued)
Formerly Recent Patents on Corrosion Science

Volume 10 , Issue 1 , 2020

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Body fluids are highly corrosive as they contain chlorides and hydroxides ions, as well as salts, bacteria, proteins and dissolved oxygen. The pH of the body is usually around 7.4, although this value can vary in a range of 4 to 9 after surgery or because of haematomas, inflammations and infections. ASTM F745 (type 316L) stainless steel has been used for load bearing partial and total joint replacements and post trauma reconstructive surgeries. However, long exposure to the aggressive effect of chloride ion present in the human body, may increase the susceptibility to suffer localized corrosion. Although UNS S32750 has greater corrosion resistance to chloride ion, its magnetic characteristics inhibit its use in implantable devices. Nevertheless, this stainless steel could be used in temporary implants and orthodontic appliances such as brackets, wire arches and bands, due to its high resistance to corrosion, the greater mechanical resistance and the high capacity of plastic forming.

Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the susceptibility to localized corrosion in simulated body fluid, in the pH range of 4 to 9. Another objective was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Cr and Ni present in the chemical composition of both stainless steels. Cytocompatibility was also analysed by seeding cells on the surfaces of both stainless steels.

Methods: Cyclic polariation test was performed to evaluate the susceptibility to localized corrosion in 0.9 wt% NaCl aqueous solution, at pH between 4 and 9, maintained at 37°C. For cytotoxicity evaluation, neutral red, MTT and collagen assays were performed using UMR-106 cell line. Cytocompatibility was analysed by seeding UMR-106 cells on the surfaces of both stainless steels.

Results: F745-SS was more susceptible to suffer localized corrosion than UNS S32750. Although it showed a tendency to develop transpassive reactions at low pH, galvanostatic tests did not reveal the onset of localized corrosion. The results from the cytotoxicity assays indicated that no adverse effects were observed. UMR-106 osteoblastic cells showed high viability, however, a slight reduction in the collagen production was observed. The cytocompatibility was also satisfactory, since the cells seeded on the surfaces had adequate proliferation.

Conclusion: F745-SS is more susceptible to suffer localized corrosion than UNS S32750 in the pH range between 4 and 9. UNS S32750 showed an extensive passive region, however, transpassive reactions were observed at lower pH. On the other hand, no cytotoxic effects were promoted by both stainless steels, although a slight reduction in collagen production was observed. Cells seeded on F745-SS and UNS S32750 surfaces had an acceptable proliferation, without evidence of changes in their morphology.

Keywords: Biomaterials, stainless steels, localized corrosion, transpassive reactions cytotoxicity, cytocompatibility, proliferation.

G. Manivasagam, D. Dhinasekaran, and A. Rajamanickam, "Biomedical implants: corrosion and its prevention – a review", Recent Pat. Corros. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 40-54, 2010.
H. Tomás, A. Ponce Freire, and L.M. Abrantes, Activity of plasma proteins regarding biomaterials corrosion-pH effects.Adv. Mat. Sci. Imp.Or-thopedic Surgery, vol. 294, Chania: Springer Science+ Business Media Dordrecht, pp. 61-71, 1995,
C. Trépanier, and A.R. Pelton, "Effect of temperature and pH on the corrosion resistance of passivated nitinol and stainless steel", International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies Baden-Baden, Germany 2004, pp. 361-366,
M. Karthega, S. Tamilselvi, and N. Rajendran, "Effect of pH on the corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for dental implant application in Fluoride Media", Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 31-34, 2006.
S.M. Bhola, and B. Mishra, "Effect of pH on the electrochemical properties of oxides formed over β – Ti-15Mo and mixed Ti-6Al-4V Alloys", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 8, pp. 7075-7087, 2013.
M. Niinomi, "Recent metallic materials for biomedical applications", Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci., vol. 33A, pp. 477-485, 2002.
A. Sargeant, and T. Goswami, "Hip implants – paper VI – ion concentrations", Mater. Des., vol. 28, pp. 155-171, 2007.
M.G. Shettlemore, and K.J. Bundy, "Examination of in vivo influences on bioluminescent microbial assessment of corrosion product toxicity", Biomaterials, vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 2215-2228, 2001.
[ PMID: 11456061]
L.C. Baxter, V. Frauchiger, M. Textor, I. ap Gwynn, and R.G. Richards, "Fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion and morphology on calcium phosphate surfaces", Eur. Cell. Mater., vol. 4, pp. 1-17, 2002.
[ PMID: 14562250]
A.F. Mavrogenis, R. Dimitriou, J. Parvizi, and G.C. Babis, "Biology of implant osseointegration", J. Musculoskelet. Neuronal Interact., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 61-71, 2009.
[PMID: 19516081]
J.B. Brunski, Metals.Biomaterials science – An introduction to materials in medicine., Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, 1996, pp. 37-50.
A.C. Fraker, Corrosion of metallic implants and prosthetic devicesASM Handbook., vol. Vol. 13. ASM International: Ohio, 1992, pp. 1324-1335.
I. Gurappa, "Characterization of different materials for corrosion resistance under simulated body fluid conditions", Mater. Charact., vol. 49, pp. 73-79, 2002.
J.R. Davis, Handbook of Materials for Medical Devices., ASM International: Ohio, 2003.
J. Pan, C. Karlén, and C. Ulfvin, "Electrochemical study of resistance to localized corrosion of stainless steel for biomedical applications", J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 47, pp. 1021-1025, 2000.
A. Cigada, G. Rondelli, B. Vicentini, M. Giacomazzi, and A. Roos, "Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices", J. Biomed. Mater. Res., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1087-1095, 1989.
[ PMID: 2777835]
A. Cigada, G. De Santis, A.M. Gatti, A. Roos, and D. Zaffe, "In vivo behavior of a high performance duplex stainless steel", J. Appl. Biomater., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 39-46, 1993.
[ PMID: 10148344]
M.M. Beloti, J.M.D.A. Rollo, A. Itman Filho, and A.L. Rosa, "In vitro biocompatibility of duplex stainless steel with and without 0.2% niobium", J. Appl. Biomater. Biomech., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 162-168, 2004.
[PMID: 20803434]
D.H. Kohn, and P. Ducheyne, Materials for bone and joint replacement.Materials Science and Technology. A comprehensive treatment, medical and dental materials., vol., vol., vol. Vol. 14. VCH: Weinheim, 1992.
R.W. Gregorutti, J.E. Grau, F. Sives, and C.I. Elsner, "Mechanical, electrochemical and magnetic behaviour of duplex stainless steel for biomedical applications", Mater. Sci. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 1818-1824, 2015.
K-T. Oh, Y-S. Kim, Y-S. Park, and K-N. Kim, "Properties of super stainless steels for orthodontic applications", J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater., vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 183-194, 2004.
[ PMID: 15116408]
A. Kocijan, and M. Conradi, "The corrosion behaviour of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in artificial body fluids", Mater. Technol., vol. 44, pp. 21-24, 2010.
J.A. Platt, A. Guzman, A. Zuccari, D.W. Thornburg, B.F. Rhodes, Y. Oshida, and B.K. Moore, "Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel", Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 69-79, 1997.
[ PMID: 9228844]
M. Taira, M.S. Toguchi, Y. Hamada, J. Takahashi, R. Itou, S. Toyosawa, N. Ijyuin, and M. Okazaki, "Studies on cytotoxic effect of nickel ions on three cultured fibroblasts", J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 373-376, 2001.
[ PMID: 15348274]
M. Sumita, T. Hanawaand, and S.H. Teo, "Development of nitrogencontaining nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for metallic biomaterials – review", Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 24, pp. 753-760, 2004.
X. Lü, X. Bao, Y. Huang, Y. Qu, H. Lu, and Z. Lu, "Mechanisms of cytotoxicity of nickel ions based on gene expression profiles", Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 141-148, 2009.
[ PMID: 18922574]
K. Yang, and Y. Ren, "Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applica-tions", Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., vol. 11, no. 1, 2010.
K.K. Das, S.N. Das, and S.A. Dhundasi, "Nickel, its adverse health effects & oxidative stress", Indian J. Med. Res., vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 412-425, 2008.
[PMID: 19106437]
M. Cempel, and G. Nikel, "Nickel: A Review of Its Sources and Environmental Toxicology", Pol. J. Environ. Stud., vol. 15, pp. 375-382, 2006.
T. Eliades, and A.E. Athanasiou, "In vivo aging of orthodontic alloys: implications for corrosion potential, nickel release, and biocompatibility", Angle Orthod., vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 222-237, 2002.
[PMID: 12071606]
J. Weyermann, D. Lochmann, and A. Zimmer, "A practical note on the use of cytotoxicity assays", Int. J. Pharm., vol. 288, no. 2, pp. 369-376, 2005.
[ PMID: 15620877]
G. Fotakis, and J.A. Timbrell, "In vitro cytotoxicity assays: comparison of LDH, neutral red, MTT and protein assay in hepatoma cell lines following exposure to cadmium chloride", Toxicol. Lett., vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 171-177, 2006.
[ PMID: 16111842]
Y.B. Wang, H.F. Li, Y.F. Zheng, and M. Li, "Corrosion performances in simulated body fluids and citotoxicity evaluation of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses", Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 32, pp. 599-606, 2012.
S. Celic, Y. Katayama, P.J. Chilco, T.J. Martin, and D.M. Findlay, "Type I collagen influence on gene expression in UMR106-06 osteoblast-like cells is inhibited by genistein", J. Endocrinol., vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 377-388, 1998.
[ PMID: 9846167]
J.O. Nilsson, "Super duplex stainless steel", Mater. Sci. Technol., vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 685-700, 1992.
J.O. Nilsson, and A. Wilson, "Influence of isothermal phase transformation on toughness and pitting corrosion of super duplex stainless steel SAF2507", Mater. Sci. Technol., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 545-554, 1993.
K.W. Chan, and S.C. Tjong, "Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels, vol. 7. 2014, p. 5268-5304", Mater, vol. 7, pp. 5268-5304, 2014.
[ PMID: 28788129]
C-O.A. Olsson, and D. Landolt, "Passive film on stainless steels-chemistry, structure and growth", Electrochim. Acta, vol. 48, pp. 1093-1104, 2003.
B.G. Pound, "Electrochemical behavior of cobalt-chromium alloys in a simulated physiological solution", J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 93-102, 2010.
[ PMID: 20128010]
J.J. Kim, and Y.M. Young, "Study on the passive film of type 316L stainless steel", Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., vol. 8, pp. 11847-11859, 2013.
D.W. Shoesmith, Kinetics of aqueous corrosionASM Handbook, Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing and Pro-tection..vol. 13. Ohio: ASM International, 2003, pp. 42-51.,
A.U. Malik, P.C. Mayan Kutty, N.A. Siddiqi, I.N. Andijani, and S. Ahmed, "The influence of pH and chloride concentration on the corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L steel in aqueous solutions", Corros. Sci., vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1809-1827, 1992.
P. Schmuki, S. Virtanen, A.J. Davenport, and C.M. Vitus, "Transpassive dissolution of Cr and sputter-deposited Cr oxides studied by in situ X-Ray near-edge spectroscopy", J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 143, no. 12, pp. 3997-4004, 1996.
A.W.E. Hodgson, S. Kurz, S. Virtanen, V. Fervel, C-O.A. Olsson, and S. Mischler, "Passive and transpassive behaviour of CoCrMo in simulated biological solutions", Electrochim. Acta, vol. 49, pp. 2167-2178, 2004.
A.I. Kociubczyk, C.M. Méndez, R.W. Gregorutti, and A.E. Ares, "Electrochemical analysis of the ASTM F75 alloy at different pH values and temperatures", Mater. and Corros., vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 977-987, 2017.
D.H. Kang, and H.W. Lee, "Study of the correlation between pitting corrosion and the component ratio of the dual phase in duplex stainless steel welds", Corros. Sci., vol. 74, pp. 396-407, 2013.
N.P.M. Sumarta, C.P. Danudiningrat, E.A. Rachmat, and P. Soesilawati, "Cytotoxicity difference of 316L stainless steel and titanium reconstruction plate", Dent. J., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 7-11, 2011.
M. Talha, C.K. Behera, and O.P. Sinha, "Promising in vitro performances of nickel-free nitrogen containing stainless steels for orthopaedic applications", Bull. Mater. Sci., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1321-1330, 2014.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 23 May, 2020
Page: [47 - 57]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/2352094910999200523153527
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 10