Risk Factors of Preeclampsia among Pregnant Women in Khorramabad (West of Iran)

Author(s): Mahnaz Mardani*, Farshad Teymouri, Maryam Rezapour

Journal Name: Current Women`s Health Reviews

Volume 16 , Issue 4 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Preeclampsia occurs in 2-10% of pregnancies, worldwide, and is characterized as a combination of hypertension and proteinuria.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the risk factors associated with the incidence of preeclampsia in the west of Iran and associated factors.

Methods: This is a cross sectional study that was performed on 740 pregnant women between 2014- 2017, who were referred to different health care centers of Khorramabad. The data was collected from these centers and a questionnaire was filled for every woman that included age, height, gender of the neonate, number of pregnancies, multiparity, season of the pregnancy, birth weight, mothers’ body mass index (BMI) before delivery, smoking history and diagnosis of preeclampsia. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: Of the 760 subjects included, 1.1% (8 cases) were reported to be presented with preeclampsia. We found a significant difference between non pre-eclamptic and pre-eclamptic patients in terms of BMI (p=0.006), number of pregnancies (p<0.05), maternal age (p<0.05) and weight (p=0.004). With an increase in BMI and the number of pregnancies, the risk of preeclampsia was elevated. Pre-eclamptic mothers had higher body weight than non-pre-eclamptic ones (75.9 kg vs. 65.6 kg) and the prevalence of preeclampsia increased with age.

Conclusion: The prevalence of preeclampsia was seen to be positively associated with higher BMI, pregnancy rate, mother weight and age are associated with higher prevalence of preeclampsia.

Keywords: Preeclampsia, body mass index (BMI), pregnancy, hypertension, proteinuria, maternal status.

[1]
Osungbade KO, Ige OK. Public health perspectives of preeclampsia in developing countries: implication for health system strengthening. J Pregnancy 2011; 2011481095
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/481095] [PMID: 21547090]
[2]
Mayrink J, Costa ML, Cecatti JG. Preeclampsia in 2018: Revisiting Concepts, Physiopathology, and Prediction. ScientificWorldJournal 2018; 20186268276
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6268276] [PMID: 30622442]
[3]
Xiao J, Shen F, Xue Q, et al. Is ethnicity a risk factor for developing preeclampsia? An analysis of the prevalence of preeclampsia in China. J Hum Hypertens 2014; 28(11): 694-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2013.148] [PMID: 24430700]
[4]
Vahabi S, Zaman M, Farzan B. Analysis of serum Calcium, Magnesium, and parathyroid hormone in neonates delivered following preeclampsia treatment. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2016; 62(14): 59-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2016.62.14.10] [PMID: 28145858]
[5]
Kharaghani R, Cheraghi Z, Okhovat Esfahani B, Mohammadian Z, Nooreldinc RS. Prevalence of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia in Iran. Arch Iran Med 2016; 19(1): 64-71.
[PMID: 26702751]
[6]
Pitakkarnkul S, Phaloprakarn C, Wiriyasirivaj B, Manusirivithaya S, Tangjitgamol S. Seasonal variation in the prevalence of preeclampsia. J Med Assoc Thai 2011; 94(11): 1293-8.
[PMID: 22256467]
[7]
Lindheimer MD, Umans JG. Explaining and predicting preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 2006; 355(10): 1056-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe068161] [PMID: 16957153]
[8]
Lamminpää R, Vehviläinen-Julkunen K, Gissler M, Heinonen S. Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997-2008. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012; 12: 47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-12-47] [PMID: 22687260]
[9]
Steegers EA, von Dadelszen P, Duvekot JJ, Pijnenborg R. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet 2010; 376(9741): 631-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60279-6] [PMID: 20598363]
[10]
Mardani M, Rezapour S, Ahmadipour S, et al. Prevalence of anemia and its risk factors among pregnant women in Khorramabad (Iran) 2010-2014. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017; 30(7): 826-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2016.1187126] [PMID: 27149881]
[11]
Luo ZC, An N, Xu HR, Larante A, Audibert F, Fraser WD. The effects and mechanisms of primiparity on the risk of pre‐eclampsia: a systematic review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2007; 21(Suppl. 1): 36-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2007.00836.x] [PMID: 17593196]
[12]
Duckitt K, Harrington D. Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ 2005; 330(7491): 565.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38380.674340.E0] [PMID: 15743856]
[13]
Tessema GA, Tekeste A, Ayele TA. Preeclampsia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Dessie referral hospital, Northeast Ethiopia: a hospital-based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015; 15: 73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0502-7] [PMID: 25880924]
[14]
Vata PK, Chauhan NM, Nallathambi A, Hussein F. Assessment of prevalence of preeclampsia from Dilla region of Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes 2015; 8: 816.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1821-5] [PMID: 26704295]
[15]
Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults--The Evidence Report. National Institutes of Health. Obes Res 1998; 6(Suppl. 2): 51S-209S.
[PMID: 9813653]
[16]
Tara F, Maamouri G, Rayman MP, et al. Selenium supplementation and the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant Iranian women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 49(2): 181-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1028-4559(10)60038-1] [PMID: 20708525]
[17]
O’Brien TE, Ray JG, Chan W-S. Maternal body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia: a systematic overview. Epidemiology 2003; 14(3): 368-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.EDE.0000059921.71494.D1] [PMID: 12859040]
[18]
Bodnar LM, Ness RB, Harger GF, Roberts JM. Inflammation and triglycerides partially mediate the effect of prepregnancy body mass index on the risk of preeclampsia. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 162(12): 1198-206.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwi334] [PMID: 16269584]
[19]
Belogolovkin V, Eddleman KA, Malone FD, et al. The effect of low body mass index on the development of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2007; 20(7): 509-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767050701420027] [PMID: 17674263]
[20]
Ohkuchi A, Iwasaki R, Suzuki H, et al. Normal and high-normal blood pressures, but not body mass index, are risk factors for the subsequent occurrence of both preeclampsia and gestational hypertension: a retrospective cohort study. Hypertens Res 2006; 29(3): 161-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1291/hypres.29.161] [PMID: 16755151]
[21]
Saftlas A, Wang W, Risch H, Woolson R, Hsu C, Bracken M. Prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain as risk factors for preeclampsia and transient hypertension. Ann Epidemiol 2000; 10(7): 475.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(00)00167-8] [PMID: 11018413]
[22]
Thadhani R, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Solomon CG, Curhan GC. High body mass index and hypercholesterolemia: risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94(4): 543-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006250-199910000-00011] [PMID: 10511356]
[23]
Rahmani A, Sayehmiri K, Asadollahi K, Sarokhani D, Islami F, Sarokhani M. Investigation of the prevalence of obesity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Acta Med Iran 2015; 53(10): 596-607.
[PMID: 26615371]
[24]
Yu C, Teoh T, Robinson S. Obesity in pregnancy. BJOG 2006; 113(10): 1117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.00991.x] [PMID: 16903839]
[25]
Harmon AC, Cornelius DC, Amaral LM, et al. The role of inflammation in the pathology of preeclampsia. Clin Sci (Lond) 2016; 130(6): 409-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20150702] [PMID: 26846579]
[26]
Hernández-Díaz S, Werler MM, Mitchell AA. Gestational hypertension in pregnancies supported by infertility treatments: role of infertility, treatments, and multiple gestations. Fertil Steril 2007; 88(2): 438-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.11.131] [PMID: 17449034]
[27]
Trogstad L, Magnus P, Stoltenberg C. Pre-eclampsia: risk factors and causal models. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2011; 25(3): 329-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2011.01.007] [PMID: 21349772]
[28]
Knuist M, Bonsel GJ, Zondervan HA, Treffers PE. Risk factors for preeclampsia in nulliparous women in distinct ethnic groups: a prospective cohort study. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 92(2): 174-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006250-199808000-00004] [PMID: 9699746]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2020
Page: [313 - 317]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/1573404816999200521094509
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 23
HTML: 1