Background: Schiff bases are excellent compounds. They were synthesized by condensation
of active carbonyl and amines. They were widely used as a substrate in the preparation of industrial
compounds as well as pharmaceutical purposes. They exhibit a wide range of biological activities.
In this study, based on the importance of Schiff bases, a sustainable synthetic method was developed
employing reflux and microwave irradiation.
Objective: The aim is to develop a new synthetic method for imidazole Schiff base derivatives synthesis
employing reflux, microwave irradiation, and ethanol as a green solvent.
Methods: Synthesis of imidazole Schiff base derivatives was carried out under reflux and microwave
irradiation conditions. Antibacterial activity of imidazole derivatives and standard drugs was examined
against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and two Gramnegative
bacteria (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli).
Results: Schiff bases were synthesized in the presence of microwave irradiation and ethanol in high
yields 90-98% for 2-4 min. The antibacterial effects of Schiff bases were evaluated against both
strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative.
Conclusion: In this paper, a novel series of imidazole Schiff base derivatives were synthesized using
reflux, microwave irradiation, and ethanol. Antibacterial effects were investigated. The excellent advantages
of microwave irradiation in the synthesis of imidazole derivatives include reduction of reaction
time from an hour to a minute, high product yield. In this study, the measurement of antibacterial
activity was also important. Imidazole derivatives with Cl, OH, and CH3 groups showed antibacterial