Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has now been established as the
causative agent of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and exactly 25 antiretroviral
drugs have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. The life quality and duration
of HIV-positive patients have increased with the usage of antiretroviral drugs in the treatment of
AIDS. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) are one of the subgroups of antiretroviral.
Objective: The quantification of drugs is important, as they make positive contributions to dose adjustments
in practice. Voltammetric methods are very powerful analytical methods used in the pharmaceutical
industry because of the determination of therapeutic agents and/or their metabolites in clinical
samples at extremely low concentrations (10-50 ng/ml).
Methods: This review mainly includes the pharmacological properties and recent determination studies
by voltammetric methods from pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples of eight NRTIs
group antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, abacavir, adefovir, entecavir, zalcitabine, didanosine, emtricitabine,
lamivudine) that are used in the clinic and show electroactive properties, were performed.
Conclusion: Due to the variety of working electrodes in voltammetric methods, it is possible to choose
the electrode that best responds. In this way, the analysis of NRTIs was possible at lower concentrations
in pharmaceuticals and biological samples with voltammetric methods in these studies without
the necessity for the sample pre-treatment or time-consuming extraction steps. The voltammetric methods
provide good stability, repeatability, reproducibility and high recovery for the analysis of the analyte.
They could be used for the pharmacokinetic studies as well as for quality control laboratory studies.