Boron possesses the second greatest heating value of any element that can be
adopted as an energetic material in the processing of propellants and explosives. It has become
the first choice as a high energy fuel for solid fuel-rich propellants because of its advantages
of high theoretical combustion heat. In the actual condition, the combustion efficiency
of boron-containing fuel-rich propellants is low, and the potential energy of boron
cannot be fully utilized. The compound containing-boron can be used as a new way to improve
the combustion efficiency of fuel-rich propellants. In this paper, the progress in the
synthesis of energetic borides is reviewed from the perspectives of molecular design, synthesis
strategy and route optimization. The situation of the synthesis methods of energetic
borides (nitrogen-rich boron esters, poly(azole)borates, nitroboranes, nitrogen-rich borazines
and azide boron compounds) is reviewed. The research focus and development trend of various boron
compounds are analyzed, and the potential application prospect in the propellant is investigated.
Keywords: Boron, energetic materials, borates, boron esters, nitrogen-rich borazine, nitroboranes.
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