Survival Benefits of N-Acetylcysteine in Rodenticide Poisoning: Retrospective Evidence from an Indian Tertiary Care Setting

Author(s): Karen Mark, Shabnam Hyder, Muhammed Rashid, Viji P. Chandran, Shubha Seshadri, Sneha Seshadri, Sreedharan Nair, Girish Thunga*

Journal Name: Current Reviews in Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology
(Formerly Current Clinical Pharmacology)

Volume 16 , Issue 2 , 2021


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Abstract:

Rationale & Objective: Rodenticide poisoning, either accidental or intentional, is very common in rural India. The absence of a definite antidote made it a major concern with a high mortality rate. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) in rodenticide poisoning as there are recent positive shreds of evidence on it.

Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital on patients admitted with rodenticide poisoning during a period of 2012-2017. The Fischer’s exact test and relative risk were measured to analyze the outcome of treatment and risk factors, respectively.

Results: A total of 229 patients were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 30.04 ± 15.67 years. The suicidal attack was the major (86.0%) reason for poison consumption. The survival rate was significantly (p ≤ 0.03) higher in the NAC treatment group compared to the non-NAC group. Moreover, the majority (93.4%) of participants did not experience any adverse effects. The mean oral loading dose and maintenance dose was 7580.95 ± 2204.29 mg and 3694.53 ± 2322.58 mg, respectively. Yellow Phosphorus poisoning (Relative Risk [RR] 2.888 (1.179-7.079); p=0.020) and Time lag of ≥ 24 hours (RR 3.479 (1.137-10.645); p=0.029) were the significant risk factors for mortality.

Conclusion: NAC is shown to have a significant survival benefit with a good safety profile among rodenticide poisoners. Further adequately powered prospective researches with more emphasis on dosing parameters are warranted for better quantification in different settings and for clinical implementation.

Keywords: Rodenticides, poisons, N-acetylcysteine, toxicology, antidotes, efficacy.Rodenticides, poisons, N-acetylcysteine, toxicology, antidotes, efficacy.Rodenticides, poisons, N-acetylcysteine, toxicology, antidotes, efficacy.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2021
Page: [199 - 206]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1574884715666200513090634
Price: $95

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