Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) is an essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, and a
fundamental structural component of the phospholipid membranes, especially of neural and retinal
cells. DHA is found to be critical for the normal development and functioning of neurons and synaptogenesis
in the brain, and is required during pre- and post-natal stages of life. DHA has also been observed
to exhibit neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, geographical
dietary variations and poor economic conditions lead to insufficient DHA levels resulting in
various health deficits like improper brain development, cognitive disorders, and other clinical complications.
Thus, to prevent its deficiency-induced derangements, several authorities recommend DHA as
a supplement during pregnancy, infancy, and throughout adulthood. In past decades, the soft gelatin
capsule was only feasible resolute of DHA, but due to their limitations and invention of new technologies;
it led to the development of new dosage forms with improved physicochemical characteristics of
DHA. This article will discuss in detail about the role of DHA in brain development, microalgae oil as
an emerging source of DHA, clinical- and pharmacological-activities of DHA, issues related to DHA
oil, current formulation of DHA along with their application, limitations, and strategies used for improvement
and future prospectives.