In recent years, excessive use of antibiotics has been raising its head to a serious problem
all around the world, as pathogens become drug-resistant and create challenges to the medical field.
This failure of the most potent antibiotics that kill pathogens increases the thirst for researchers to
look for another way of killing pathogens. It has led to the findings of antimicrobial peptide, which
are the most potent peptides to destroy pathogens. This review gives special emphasis to the usage of
marine bacteria and other microorganisms for antimicrobial peptide (AMP), which are eco-friendly
as well as a developing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets to
pathogenic microbes. Consequently, a significant attention has been paid mainly to (i) the structure
and types of antimicrobial peptides and (ii) mode of action and mechanism of antimicrobial peptide
resistance to pathogens. In addition to this, the designing of AMPs has been analyzed thoroughly for
reducing toxicity and developing better potent AMP. It has been done by the modified unnatural
amino acids by amidation to target the control of biofilm and persister cells.
Keywords: Amino acids, AMP resistance, antimicrobial peptides, biofilm, marine bacteria, marine microorganisms.
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