Proteomics and Neurodegenerative Disorders: Advancements in the Diagnostic Analysis

Author(s): Nidhi Puranik, Dhananjay Yadav, Shiv Kumar Yadav, Vishal K. Chavda, Jun-O Jin*

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 21 , Issue 12 , 2020


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Abstract:

Changes in protein structure and function, alteration in protein-protein interaction, and significant difference in protein concentration inside the body could play an important role in indicating the pathological evidence of abnormalities before the development of clinical symptoms and act as a critical detection and diagnostic tool commonly known as biomarkers. Biomarkers play important roles in the diagnosis of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, prion, and multiple sclerosis, are well characterized by neuronal deterioration, resulting in precise modifications of neuronal proteins. Nowadays, the diagnosis of neurological disorders is based on proteins or biomarkers. These biomarkers may be found in the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, serum, plasma, saliva, or urine sample. Early diagnosis is urgently needed to prevent further damage. For early diagnosis, identifying the changes in novel protein levels and their functions under the disease conditions is necessary. These can be used as specific proteomic biomarkers for diseases, and they can be possibly identified using neuroproteomics. Neuroproteomics is an emerging tool to corroborate disease-associated protein profiles. It also gives an idea about how these proteins interact with other proteins and undergo post-translational modifications. Neuroproteomics is based on bioinformatics, which provides functional characteristics and advances in technology such as mass spectroscopy, and can help in the discovery of various disease-specific biomarkers. This review gives a complete idea about the types of biomarkers, sources of biomarkers, and techniques involved in the discovery of biomarkers for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Neuroproteomics, biomarkers, neurodegenerative disorders, bioinformatics, proteomics.

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