Herbal Remedies for Birth Control: An Alternative to Synthetic Hormonal Contraceptives

Author(s): Ashwani K. Dhingra*, Bhawna Chopra

Journal Name: Current Women`s Health Reviews

Volume 16 , Issue 4 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Both women and men wish to have control over when to become parents. Birth control or contraception methods basically entail different types of mechanisms to avoid pregnancy. Making choices about birth control methods is not easy since there are many types of fertility control techniques available to avoid pregnancy.

Objective: Several health problems are associated with females or males on the prominent use of oral contraceptives/pills. To reduce the side effects of these pills, nature provides us with several medicinal plants that act as good birth control pills. So this review aims to focus on the database provided in the literature to use these medicinal plants to avoid or control the severe health problems which directly or indirectly affect the health of the individual.

Methods: All significant databases were collected via electronic search using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Science direct and were compiled.

Results: Several common options include family planning through abstinence, hormonal methods like oral contraceptives, barrier methods, etc. Apart from this, some people who do not want to have children may opt for permanent sterilization, but these methods or pills, when taken orally, change the hormonal balance of the individual, which leads to the other disorders. Thus, this present review concludes the knowledgeable erudition on the natural plants acting as antifertility agents.

Conclusion: This review article is mainly focused on the natural birth control methods to combat pregnancy and also emphasize on various medicinal active plants being used to avoid fertility.

Keywords: Anti-fertility, hormonal contraceptives, herbal drugs, birth control.

[1]
Kippley JF, Kippley SK. The Art of Natural Family Planning. 4th ed. The Couple to Couple League 1966.
[2]
Umadevi M, Sampath KPK, Bhowmik D, Duraivel S. Medicinal plants with potential antifertility activity. J Med Plants Stud 2013; 1(1): 26-33.
[3]
Pathak AK, Mallurwar VR, Kondalkar A, Soni S. A review of plants with anti-fertility activity. Niger J Nat Prod Med 2005; 9: 4-10.
[4]
Ahmad S, Jamal Y, Mannan A. Review of some medicinal plants with anti-fertility activities. Unani Res 2011; 1(2): 24-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/ur.2.2011.6]
[5]
Farnsworth NR, Bingel AS, Cordell GA, Crane FA, Fong HH. Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents I. J Pharm Sci 1975; 64(4): 535-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jps.2600640404] [PMID: 167146]
[6]
Dutta S. A review of plants used as contraceptives. Int J Innov Pharm Sci Res 2015; 3: 655-62.
[7]
Kaur R, Sharma A, Kumar R, Kharb R. Rising trends towards herbal contraceptives. J Nat Prod Plant Resour 2011; 1(4): 5-12.
[8]
Klonoff-Cohen HS, Savitz DA, Cefalo RC, McCann MF. An epidemiologic study of contraception and preeclampsia. JAMA 1989; 262(22): 3143-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430220066032] [PMID: 2810672]
[9]
Mia AR, Siddiqui NI, Islam MN, Khan MR, Shampa SS, Rukunuzzaman M. Effects of prolonged use of injectable hormonal contraceptive on serum lipid profile. Mymensingh Med J 2005; 14(1): 19-21.
[PMID: 15695947]
[10]
Larimore WL, Stanford JB. Postfertilization effects of oral contraceptives and their relationship to informed consent. Arch Fam Med 2000; 9(2): 126-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archfami.9.2.126] [PMID: 10693729]
[11]
Kahlenborn C, Modugno F, Potter DM, Severs WB. Oral contraceptive use as a risk factor for premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81(10): 1290-302.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/81.10.1290] [PMID: 17036554]
[12]
Kahlenborn MDC. Breast Cancer. Its Link to Abortion and the Birth Control Pill, One More Soul 2000.
[13]
Herrero R, Brinton LA, Reeves WC, et al. Injectable contraceptives and risk of invasive cervical cancer: evidence of an association. Int J Cancer 1990; 46(1): 5-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910460103] [PMID: 2163991]
[14]
Dennis LK, Dawson DV, Resnick MI. Vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis examining vasectomy status, age at vasectomy, and time since vasectomy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2002; 5(3): 193-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.pcan.4500586] [PMID: 12496981]
[15]
Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective cohort study of vasectomy and prostate cancer in US men. JAMA 1993; 269(7): 873-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500070053028] [PMID: 8426446]
[16]
John EM, Whittemore AS, Wu AH, et al. Vasectomy and prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87(9): 662-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/87.9.662] [PMID: 7538594]
[17]
Grimes DA. Intrauterine devices (IUDs).In RA Hatcher et al., eds.,. Contraceptive Technology. 19th ed. New York: Ardent 2007.
[18]
Al-Inany H. Current state of intrauterine contraceptive devices. Middle East Fertil Soc J 2007; 12(1): 8-12.
[19]
Kulier R, O’Brien PA, Helmerhorst FM, Usher-Patel M, D’Arcangues C. Copper containing, framed intra-uterine devices for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (4): CD005347
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005347.pub3] [PMID: 17943851]
[20]
Keebler C, Chatwani A, Schwartz R. Actinomycosis infection associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 145(5): 596-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(83)91203-6] [PMID: 6829637]
[21]
Burkman RT. Association between intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol 1981; 57(3): 269-76.
[PMID: 7465139]
[22]
Burkman R, Schlesselman S, McCaffrey L, Gupta PK, Spence M. The relationship of genital tract actinomycetes and the development of pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 143(5): 585-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(82)90552-X] [PMID: 7091230]
[23]
Khader YS, El-Qaderi S, Khader AM. Intrauterine contraceptive device discontinuation among Jordanian women: rate, causes and determinants. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2006; 32(3): 161-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1783/147118906777888279] [PMID: 16857069]
[24]
Moroole MA, Materechera SA, Mbeng WO, Aremu AO. Medicinal plants used for contraception in South Africa: A review. J Ethnopharmacol 2019; 235: 19-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.002] [PMID: 30731180]
[25]
Alade G, Oladele A, Okpako E, Ajibesin K, Awotona O. A survey of plants used for family planning in Bayelsa State, southern Nigeria. J Complement Med Res 2018; 7(1): 25-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/jice.20171202114930]
[26]
Rajeswari J, Rani S. Medicinal plants used as abortifacients-A review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2014; 24(1): 129-33.
[27]
Bala K, Arya M, Katare DP. Herbal contraceptive: an overview. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 3(8): 1305-26.
[28]
Shrestha J, Shanbhag T, Shenoy S, et al. Antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of Areca catechu (betel nut) in female rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2010; 42(5): 306-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.70350] [PMID: 21206624]
[29]
Kumar CP, Jadhav S. Pharmacological action of plant alkaloids in female reproductive system of test animals and/or human beings: A review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013; 23(2): 98-107.
[30]
Anand AK, Prasad V, Alam M. Herbal or modern methods of contraception! choice is yours. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4): 947-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20150405]
[31]
Mamatha A, Elumalai A, Eswaraiah MC, Mathangi N. An updated review on antifertility plants-2012. Int J Pharmacother 2012; 2: 4-6.
[32]
Juneja SC, Williams RS, Farooq A, Chegini N. Contraception potential of neem oil: effect on pregnancy success in the mouse. J Assist Reprod Genet 1996; 13(7): 578-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02066612] [PMID: 8844316]
[33]
Garg S, Talwar GP, Upadhyay SN. Immunocontraceptive activity guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 1998; 60(3): 235-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00157-8] [PMID: 9613837]
[34]
Shrivastava S, Dwivedi S, Dubey D, Kapoor S. Traditional herbal remedies from Madhya Pradesh used as oral contraceptives- A field survey. Int J Green Pharm 2007; 1(1): 18-22.
[35]
Priya G, Saravanan K, Renuka C. Medicinal plants with potential anti-fertility activity-A review of sixteen years of herbal medicine research (1994-2010). Int J Pharm Tech Res 2012; 4(1): 481-94.
[36]
Findley WE, Jacobs BR. The antigonadotropic activity of Lithospermum ruderale I. The lack of steroid-like activity at the receptor level. Contraception 1980; 21(2): 199-205.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-7824(80)90132-8] [PMID: 6245832]
[37]
Bablola KA. An examination of the usage of herbal contraceptives and abortifacients in Lagos State, Nigeria. Ethnobot Leaflets 2009; 13: 140-6.
[38]
Sharma N, Jocob D. Antifertility investigation and toxicological screening of the petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Mentha arvensis L. in male albino mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 75(1): 5-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00362-7] [PMID: 11282436]
[39]
Pokharkar RD, Saraswat RK, Kotkar S. Survey of plants having antifertility activity from Western Ghat area of Maharashtra state. J Herbal Med Toxicol 2010; 4(2): 71-5.
[40]
Dugoua JJ, Perri D, Seely D, Mills E, Koren G. Safety and efficacy of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2008; 15(1): e66-73.
[PMID: 18204101]
[41]
Pradhan DK, Mishra MR, Mishra A, et al. A comprehensive review of plants used as contraceptives. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012; 4(1): 148-55.
[42]
Vasudeva N, Sharma SK. Estrogenic and pregnancy interceptory effects of Achyranthes aspera Linn. root. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2006; 4(1): 7-11.
[PMID: 20162066]
[43]
Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci 2005; 78(5): 431-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2005.09.012] [PMID: 16198377]
[44]
Jegede T, Fagbenro O. Histology of Gonads in Tilapia zillii (Gervais) Fed Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Meal Diets. 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Cairo, Egypt. 2008; pp. 1129-34.
[45]
Changamma C, Lakshman J. Antispermatogenic effect of Carica papaya seed extract on steroidogenesis in albino rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 5(1): 67-9.
[46]
Yadav R, Jain GC. Antifertility effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula in female rats. Adv Contracept 1999; 15(4): 293-301.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006784224191] [PMID: 11145371]
[47]
Patil SJ, Patil SB. Antiovulatory activity of petroleum ether extract of chromatographic fractions of Citrus medica seeds in albino rats. J Med Sci 2013; 13(6): 410-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jms.2013.410.417]
[48]
Firenzuoli F, Gori L. Herbal medicine today: clinical and research issues. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007; 4(Suppl. 1): 37-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nem096] [PMID: 18227931]
[49]
Pande D, Malik S, Bora M, Srivastava PS. A rapid protocol for in vitro micropropagation of Lepidium sativum Linn. andenhancement in the yield of lepidine. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 2002; 38: 451-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/IVP2002322]
[50]
Patel U, Kulkarni M, Undale V, Bhosale A. Evaluation of diuretic activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Lepidium sativum Garden Cress (Cruciferae) in rats. Trop J Pharm Res 2009; 8(3): 215-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v8i3.44536]
[51]
Mutreja A, Agarwal M, Kushwaha S, Chauhan A. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on the reproductive organs of female rats. IJRM 2008; 6(1): 7-11.
[52]
Pandey G, Madhuri S. Pharmacological activities of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi): A review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010; 5(1): 61-6.
[53]
Sheeja E, Joshi SB, Jain DC. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2009; 41(6): 273-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.59927] [PMID: 20407559]
[54]
Lakshmi PJ. Therapeutic uses of Vernonia cinerea- A short review. IJPCR 2015; 7(4): 323-5.
[55]
Singh AR, Singh K, Shekhawat PS. Spermicidal activity and antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera in male albino rats. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013; 21(2): 227-32.
[56]
Srivastava JK, Shankar E, Gupta S. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future. Mol Med Rep 2010; 3(6): 895-901.
[PMID: 21132119]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2020
Published on: 09 September, 2020
Page: [290 - 297]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1573404816999200511002829
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 21
HTML: 1