The Protective Roles and Molecular Mechanisms of Troxerutin (Vitamin P4) for the Treatment of Chronic Diseases: A Mechanistic Review

Author(s): Mohammad Zamanian, Gholamreza Bazmandegan, Antoni Sureda, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez, Hasan Yousefi-Manesh, Samira Shirooie*

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 19 , Issue 1 , 2021

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Graphical Abstract:


Troxerutin (TRX), a semi-synthetic bioflavonoid derived from rutin, has been reported to exert several pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and nephroprotective. However, the related molecular details and its mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present review, we presented evidences from the diversity in vitro and in vivo studies on the therapeutic potential of TRX against neurodegenerative, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases with the purpose to find molecular pathways related to the treatment efficacy. TRX has a beneficial role in many diseases through multiple mechanisms including, increasing antioxidant enzymes and reducing oxidative damage, decreasing in proapoptotic proteins (APAF-1, BAX, caspases-9 and-3) and increasing the antiapoptotic BCL-2, increasing the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NFκ). TRX also reduces acetylcholinesterase activity and upregulates phosphoinositide 3- kinase/Akt signaling pathway in Alzheimer’s disease models. Natural products such as TRX may develop numerous and intracellular pathways at several steps in the treatment of many diseases. Molecular mechanisms of action are revealing novel, possible combinational beneficial approaches to treat multiple pathological conditions.

Keywords: Troxerutin, flavonoids, inflammation, antioxidant, natural product, neurodegeneration.

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Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 09 May, 2020
Page: [97 - 110]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X18666200510020744
Price: $65

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