Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic for pain management, especially useful in chronic
diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, easy access to this medicine has increased the occurrence
of episodes of poisoning. Patients often develop severe liver damage, which may quickly
lead to death. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to identify new biomarkers that
allow the prediction of the degree of acetaminophen intoxication and thus intervene in a timely manner
to save patients’ lives. This review highlights the main mechanisms of the induction and progression
of liver damage arising from acetaminophen poisoning. In addition, we have discussed the possibility
of using new clinical biomarkers for detecting acetaminophen poisoning.