Aim: The aim of the study was to develop nanoparticles consisting of etoricoxib with
ethanolic extract of ginger rhizome (GE) and basil leaves (BE) and evaluate against human skin
cancer cells (melanoma, SK-MEL-2). Nanoparticles were further incorporated into gel and ointment
Methods: Concentration of extract was varied while etoricoxib remained constant in nanoparticles.
Nanoparticles were incorporated into gel and ointment, prepared by using tamarind seed polysaccharide
and aloe vera gel, respectively.
Results: All the batches of nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size and were found from 924
nm (N1) to 1084 nm (N9). The loading efficiency of etoricoxib varied form 66.8 ± 0.05% (N4) to
85.1 ± 0.04% (N9), for GE 60.3 ± 0.04% (N4) to 72.1 ± 0.05% (N9), for BE 59.5 ± 0.04% (N8) to
80.5 ± 0.03% (N9). The consistency of ointment and gel was found smooth. The pH of the nanoparticles
incorporated ointment was observed 6.2 ± 0.023 (O6) to 6.2 ± 0.089 (O4), viscosity was
found as 0.70 ± 0.098 (O3) to 1.130 ± 0.092 (O1) gm/cm3, and spreadability in the range of 58.3 ±
0.062 (O2) to 66.2 ± 0.098 (O5)%. The pH of nanoparticles incorporated gel was observed 6.2 ±
0.019 (G2) to 6.2 ± 0.098 (G7), viscosity was found as 0.847 ± 0.030 (G7) to 1.130 ± 0.065
gm/cm3 (G9), with spreadability in the range of 62.5 ± 0.045% (G5) to 70.51±0.056% (G4). In
vitro cytotoxic studies showed that nanoparticles incorporated gel formulation (G1) was able to
control cell growth (SK-MEL-2).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that etoricoxib and herbal components consisting of formulations
were able to control the growth of human skin cancer cells.