Background: Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent and disabling inflammatory
skin condition, clinically characterized by nodules, bullae, abscesses, fistulae, and draining sinus
tracts mainly located in axillae, inguinal folds, inframammary region and buttocks, often leading
to pain, scarring, disfigurement and decreased quality of life. Due to its complex nature, with still no
completely elucidated etiology and pathogenesis, the management of HS can be challenging. In fact,
many patients do not respond to the traditionally available systemic treatments, including antiinflammatories,
antibiotics and surgery. Research has provided new insights into the mechanisms of
HS, mainly investigating the inflammatory cytokine pathways underlying the disease.
Methods: We review the current knowledge on newer therapeutic approaches and targets for the treatment
of HS, through a PubMed-based literature search.
Results: In this setting, studies on tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and the IL-23/T-helper (Th)
17 and IL12/Th1 axes in immune dysregulation in HS have helped in developing new regimens.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 and laser treatments have shown clinically meaningful efficacy with
good short-term safety and tolerability.
Conclusion: Target therapy has revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe HS, based on the
inhibition of specific molecular or cellular targets, directly involved in the pathogenesis of the condition.