Chronic inflammation plays an extensive role in the onset and progression of metabolic disorders such
as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, gout and obesity. Atherosclerosis accounts for up to 70% mortality in patients
with type 2 diabetes and is also a chronic condition that causes atrial stenosis due to a lipometabolism imbalance.
The purpose of this article is to consider the inflammatory factors implicated in atherosclerosis and their role in
the development and progression of this vascular disease. The inflammasome signaling pathway is an important
inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The most important inflammasome
pathway in this respect is the NLRP3 inflammasome (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like
receptor with a pyrin domain 3), whose activation leads to the generation of important inflammatory cytokines
including interleukins 1β and 18 (IL-1β and 18). The activities of these mature cytokines and inflammatory factors
produced by other inflammatory pathways lead to arterial inflammation and eventually arterial occlusion,
which can result in life-threatening complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Therefore, it is essential
to seek out more precise mechanisms for the activation of inflammasomes and other inflammatory pathways
for the development of therapeutic strategies of atherosclerosis.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis, NLRP3, inflammasome, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, pyrin domain.
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