Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including disorders of cardiac muscle and
vascular, is the major cause of death globally. Many unsuccessful attempts have been made to intervene
in the disease's pathogenesis and treatment. Stem cell-based therapies, as a regeneration strategy, cast a
new hope for CVD treatment. One of the most well-known stem cells is mesenchymal stem cells
(MSCs), classified as one of the adult stem cells and can be obtained from different tissues. These cells
have superior properties, such as proliferation and highly specialized differentiation. On the other hand,
they have the potential to modulate the immune system and anti-inflammatory activity. One of their most
important features is the secreting the extracellular vesicles (EVs) like exosomes (EXOs) as an intercellular
communication system mediating the different physiological and pathophysiological affairs.
Methods: In this review study, the importance of MSC and its secretory exosomes for the treatment of
heart disease has been together and specifically addressed and the use of these promising natural and
accessible agents is predicted to replace the current treatment modalities even faster than we imagine.
Results: MSC derived EXOs by providing a pro-regenerative condition allowing innate stem cells to
repair damaged tissues successfully. As a result, MSCs are considered as the appropriate cellular source
in regenerative medicine. In the plethora of experiments, MSCs and MSC-EXOs have been used for the
treatment and regeneration of heart diseases and myocardial lesions.
Conclusion: Administration of MSCs has been provided a replacement therapeutic option for heart
regeneration, obtaining great attention among the basic researcher and the medical doctors.