Role of Nitric Oxide in Neurodegeneration: Function, Regulation, and Inhibition

Author(s): Devesh Tewari*, Archana N. Sah, Sweta Bawari, Seyed F. Nabavi, Ahmad R. Dehpour, Samira Shirooie, Nady Braidy, Bernd L. Fiebich, Rosa A. Vacca*, Seyed M. Nabavi*

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 19 , Issue 2 , 2021


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Abstract:

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), collectively known as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), are the products of normal cellular metabolism and interact with several vital biomolecules including nucleic acid, proteins, and membrane lipids and alter their function in an irreversible manner which can lead to cell death. There is an imperative role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairments and the development and progression of neural injury. Elevated production of higher amounts of nitric oxide (NO) takes place in numerous pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, and ischemia, which occur concurrently with elevated nitrosative/oxidative stress. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for the generation of NO in different cells by conversion of Larginine (Arg) to L-citrulline. Therefore, the NO signaling pathway represents a viable therapeutic target. Naturally occurring polyphenols targeting the NO signaling pathway can be of major importance in the field of neurodegeneration and related complications. Here, we comprehensively review the importance of NO and its production in the human body and afterwards highlight the importance of various natural products along with their mechanisms against various neurodegenerative diseases involving their effect on NO production.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s, NO, iNOS, neuroinflammation, neurotransmission, neurotoxicity.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2021
Published on: 31 December, 2020
Page: [114 - 126]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X18666200429001549
Price: $65

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