Exploring Molecular Approaches in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Drug Targets from Clinical and Pre-Clinical Findings

Author(s): Mamtaj Alam, Rajeshwar K. Yadav, Elizabeth Minj, Aarti Tiwari, Sidharth Mehan*

Journal Name: Current Molecular Pharmacology

Volume 14 , Issue 3 , 2021


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease (MND) characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons (corticospinal tract) in the motor cortex, basal ganglia, brain stem, and spinal cord. The patient experiences the sign and symptoms between 55 to 75 years of age, which include impaired motor movement, difficulty in speaking and swallowing, grip loss, muscle atrophy, spasticity, and sometimes associated with memory and cognitive impairments. Median survival is 3 to 5 years after diagnosis and 5 to 10% of the patients live for more than 10 years. The limited intervention of pharmacologically active compounds, that are used clinically, is majorly associated with the narrow therapeutic index. Pre-clinically established experimental models, where neurotoxin methyl mercury mimics the ALS like behavioural and neurochemical alterations in rodents associated with neuronal mitochondrial dysfunctions and downregulation of adenyl cyclase mediated cAMP/CREB, is the main pathological hallmark for the progression of ALS in central as well in the peripheral nervous system. Despite the considerable investigation into neuroprotection, it still constrains treatment choices to strong care and organization of ALS complications. Therefore, this current review specially targeted the investigation of clinical and pre-clinical features available for ALS to understand the pathogenic mechanisms and to explore the pharmacological interventions associated with the up-regulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase/cAMP/ CREB and activation of mitochondrial-ETC coenzyme-Q10 as a future drug target in the amelioration of ALS mediated motor neuronal dysfunctions.

Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, adenyl cyclase, motor neuron degeneration, cognitive impairments, mitochondrial coenzyme Q10, methyl mercury, riluzole.

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VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2021
Published on: 27 April, 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1566524020666200427214356
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