D-Amino Acids in Peptides from Animals, Including Human: Occurrence, Structure, Bioactivity and Pharmacology

Author(s): Elsie C. Jimenez*

Journal Name: Current Protein & Peptide Science

Volume 21 , Issue 6 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


All life forms typically possess homochirality, with rare exceptions. In the case of peptides and proteins, only L-amino acids are known to be encoded by genes. Nevertheless, D-amino acids have been identified in a variety of peptides, synthesized by animal cells. They include neuroexcitatory and neuroprotective peptides, cardioexcitatory peptides, hyperglycemic hormones, opioid peptides, antimicrobial peptides, natriuretic and defensin-like peptides, and fibrinopeptides. This article is a review of their occurrence, structure and bioactivity. It further explores the pharmacology and potential medical applications of some of the peptides.

Keywords: D-amino acid, achatin, conotoxin, agatoxin, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, dermorphin and deltorphin, natriuretic and defensin-like peptides, fibrinopeptide.

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Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [622 - 637]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1389203721666200426233758
Price: $65

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