Background: Theranostic is a new field of medicine that combines diagnosis and patient-
specific targeted treatment. In the theranostic approach, it is aimed to detect diseased cells by using
targeted molecules using disease-specific biological pathways and then destroy them by cellular
irradiation without damaging other tissues. Diagnostic tests guide the use of specific therapeutic
agents by demonstrating the presence of the receptor/molecule on the target tissue. As the therapeutic
agent is administered to patients who have a positive diagnostic test, the efficacy of treatment in
these patients is largely guaranteed. As therapeutic efficacy can be predicted by therapeutic agents,
it is also possible to monitor the response to treatment. Many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures
in nuclear medicine are classified as theranostic. 131I treatment and scintigraphy are the best examples
of the theranostic application. Likewise, 177Lu / 90Y octreotate for neuroendocrine tumors,
177Lu PSMA for metastatic or treatment-resistant prostate cancer, 90Y SIRT for metastatic liver
cancer, and 223Ra for bone metastasis of prostate cancer are widely used. Moreover, nanoparticles
are one of the most rapidly developing subjects of theranostics. Diagnostic and therapeutic
agents that show fluorescent, ultrasonic, magnetic, radioactive, contrast, pharmacological drug or
antibody properties are loaded into the nanoparticle to provide theranostic use.
Methods: This article reviewed general aspects of preclinical models for theranostic research, and
presented examples from the literature.
Conclusion: To achieve successful results in rapidly accelerating personalized treatment research
of today, the first step is to conduct appropriate preclinical studies.